The Australia-China Chamber of Commerce and Industry
of New South Wales







Traditional Chinese Political Thought, Monitoring Allies of the State, the Party System, Democratic Institutions, Public Sector Policies and Reforms, Protests and Other Popular Action, The Start of the Xi Jinping Era, Hu Jintao’s Concepts and Campaigns plus Liberalism and Civil Society


Last updated: 31 December 2015


Comments are invited on anything contained in the listed documents and suggestions for additional linked documents are encouraged.


Email to: Policy@accci.com.au




Traditional Chinese Political Thought


Wang Yuan-kang, “Managing Regional Hegemony in Historical Asia: The Case of Early Ming China”, The Chinese Journal of International Politics, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Summer 2012) pp. 129-153.  The author notes that much has been written recently about China’s rise, yet from an historical perspective this is the fourth rise of China and this needs to be seen in the longer perspective.  Available for purchase at: http://cjip.oxfordjournals.org/content/current.


Yongjin Zhang and Barry Buzan, “The Tributary System as International Society in Theory and Practice”, The Chinese Journal of International Politics, Vol. 5, No 1 (Spring 2012), pp. 3-35.  The authors contribute to the growing interest in the traditional Chinese political and moral thinking about peace and war, conflict and co-operation in relations between states and political communities by examining the way in which the tributary system functioned.  Available at: http://cjip.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/1/3.full.

Allies of the State


Allies of the State


Xufeng Zhu, “Government Advisors or Public Advocates? Roles of Think Tanks in China from the Perspective of Regional Variations”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 207 (September 2011), pp. 668-686.  The author uses data involving 301 think tanks in 25 provinces of China to suggest that connections with the government and the knowledge capacity of the respective regions are the main determinants in acting as either advisors or advocates.  Available for purchase at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8385810&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0305741011000701.


Jie Chen and Bruce J. Dickson, Allies of the State: China’s Private Entrepreneurs and Democratic Change, Harvard University Press (Cambridge, MA and London), 2010.  The authors completed a survey of 2,000 business elites in China and concluded that in general they were offered a deal in “not rocking the boat”, or otherwise learned not to bite the hand that feeds it.  The book is available for purchase from online sellers.


Feng Chen, “Trade Unions and the Quadripartite Interactions in Strike Settlement in China”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 201 (March 2010), pp. 104-124.  The author suggests that labour relations in China are characterised by a quadripartite structure since strikes are always launched by unorganised workers, with trade unions playing a mediating role not only between workers and the government but also between workers and employers. Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=7398272&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0305741009991093 


Bruce J. Dickson, “Integrating Wealth and Power in China The Communist Party’s Embrace of the Private Sector”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 192 (December 2007), pp. 827-854.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayIssue?iid=1587448.


Jie Chen and Bruce J. Dickson, “Allies of the State: Democratic Support and Regime Support among China’s Private Entrepreneurs”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 196 (December 2008), pp. 780-804.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayIssue?iid=3310956.


Cheng Li, “China’s New Think Tanks:  Where Officials, Entrepreneurs and Scholars Interact”, China Leadership Monitor No. 29, Spring 2009 from the Hoover Institution.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/clm/issues/52971792.html.


Barry Naughton, “SASAC and Rising Corporate Power in China”, China Leadership Monitor No. 24, Spring 2008, from the Hoover Institution.  SASAC is State Asset Supervision and Administration Commission and is charged with the responsibility of regulating (“managing”) the large state-owned enterprises in China.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/clm/issues/16610761.html.



The Party System


The Party System

D S Rajan, “China: Divergence of Opinion on Party’s Status Vis-à-vis Military and State Constitution,” Eurasia Review, 28 December 2015.  The author concludes: “there is not going to be any fundamental change soon in the CCP’s supreme status in the PRC’s political and military systems, which as on today stands written both in the party and state constitutions.” Available at: http://www.eurasiareview.com/28122015-china-divergence-of-opinion-on-partys-status-vis-a-vis-military-and-state-constitution-analysis/. 

Om Jung-Myung, “China’s Fifth Generation Leadership: Growth Policy and Implications,” SERI Quarterly, 7 September 2013. “China’s top leadership has entered its fifth generation since 1949, and significant changes are set to ensue.  China’s rushed development under previous generations has resulted in significant imbalances in the economy, including income and regional inequality.  The new leadership hopes to change this by shifting growth to domestic consumption and urbanizing its population.” Available at: http://www.seriquarterly.com/03/qt_Section_list.html?mncd=0302&pub=20130220&Falocs=03&dep=2&pubseq=318

Kerry Brown, “The Challenge of China’s Governance”, East Asia Forum, 12 August 2013.  The author states that “defining the space where the party legitimately operates and where the government works is not an issue that will go away any time soon.” The then describes briefly how each operates and suggests that the only way of achieving the desired definition is through a constitutional change. Available at: http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2013/08/12/the-challenge-of-chinas-governance/.  Note that this is not likely to happen soon, as indicated by Christopher Buckley, “China’s New Leadership Takes Hard Line in Secret Memo,” The New York Times, 19 August 2013.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/20/world/asia/chinas-new-leadership-takes-hard-line-in-secret-memo.html?pagewanted=1&_r=0&hp. 

Pin Ho, “From Maoist Criminal to Popular Hero?” The New York Times, 7 August 2013.  The author draws a parallel between the pending trial of Bo Xilai, the former rising star in the Politburo and Communist Party Boss in Chongquing, and Ms Jiang, leader of the Gang of Four whose more common pseudonym was Jiang Qing.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/08/opinion/from-criminal-to-unlikely-hero.html.

Zheng Wang, “The Next Hu”, The National Interest, 19 December 2012.  The author suggests that if the Communist Party of China is able to hold onto power for the next decade, there is a good chance that Hu Chunghua, who was appointed party secretary of Guangdong Province and was recently been made a Politburo member, will be selected to replace Xi Jinping in 2022.  Available at: http://nationalinterest.org/commentary/hus-next-7866.

Simon Rabinovitch, “China’s ‘Firefighter-in-Chief’ Ascending” The Washington Post, 2 November 2012.  The author suggests that until six months ago, rumours swirled that Wang Qishan, China's vice premier, a historian by training, might even take the place of Li Keqiang, the man anointed to replace Wen Jiabao as premier.  Li is now seen as having a lock on the premiership, but Wang is still expected to emerge from the once-in-a-decade political transition with greatly enhanced powers.  Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/chinas-firefighter-in-chief-ascending/2012/11/01/9bd7675c-243e-11e2-9313-3c7f59038d93_story.html?wpisrc=nl_headlines.

David Shambaugh, “International Perspective on the Communist Party of China”, China: An International Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2 (August 2012), pp. 8-22.  The author argues that since 2009, political and inner-Party reforms that had been pursued for the previous decade have stagnated and retrogressed, and that the Communist Party of China needs to return to a proactive political reform agenda in order to tackle the many pressing social, economic, intellectual and political challenges that it faces.  Available through registered institutions at: http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/china/v010/10.2.shambaugh.html.

Chang Li, “Leadership Transition in the CPC: Promising Progress and Potential Problems”, China: An International Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2 (August 2012), pp. 23-33.  This article reviews the CPC's institutional development in the reform era and discusses the challenges and opportunities that the CPC is encountering on the eve of the 18th Party Congress. Available through registered institutions at: http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/china/v010/10.2.li.html.

*Bruce J Dickson, “Revising Reform: China’s New Leaders and the Challenge of Governance”, China: An International Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2 (August 2012), pp. 34-51.  This article looks at three key trends in China’s political development: the promotion of "national champions" and "indigenous innovation" to create distinctive Chinese brands that can compete in foreign markets; an emphasis on more domestic consumption and less reliance on exports and infrastructure spending as the engine of growth; and experiments with various political reforms at the local level that are designed to help the Party govern better.  Available through registered institutions at: http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/china/v010/10.2.dickson.html.

Kerry Brown, “The Communist Party of China and Ideology”, China: An International Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2 (August 2012), pp. 52-68.  The author examines the following questions through key speeches of Hu Jintao in their institutional and linguistic contexts: What is the function of ideology in a society which is undergoing dynamic economic and social reform and does ideology continue to perform a role in building up cohesiveness amongst the political elite in contemporary China, and if so, how?  Available through registered institutions at: http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/china/v010/10.2.brown.html.

Kjeld Erik Brødsgaard, “Cadre and Personnel Management in the CPC”, China: An International Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2 (August 2012), pp. 69-83.  The article emphasises the crucial importance of cadre management in understanding the fundamentals of the Chinese power system, and it also points to a number of challenges in studying this particular Chinese form of personnel management.  Available through registered institutions at: http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/china/v010/10.2.brodsgaard.html.

Zheng Yongnian, “Where Does the Chinese Communist Party Go from Here?:  Challenges and Opportunities”, China: An International Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2 (August 2012), p. 84-101.  This article argues that political reform in China cannot be achieved by utopianism but must be based on Chinese political practice that comprises three main dimensions, namely, open party, meritocratic competition and public participation.  Available through registered institutions at: http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/china/v010/10.2.zheng.html.

William Wan, “China’s Mid-Level Party Officials Spend Professional Training Time Cultivating Allies”, The Washington Post, 13 October 2012.  Students attending the Central Party School no longer seize the opportunity to immerse themselves in the wisdom of communism but use the time at the school to cultivate relationships that might further their careers and wealth.  Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/2012/10/12/c7d15f06-0d65-11e2-bb5e-492c0d30bff6_story.html?wpisrc=nl_headlines.

Martine Bulard, “The Secretive World of the Communist Party”, Le Monde Diplomatique, September 2012.  The lack of transparency surrounding he appointment of China’s new Communist Party government later this year extends to basic political and economic philosophy.  Available at: http://mondediplo.com/2012/09/07communist

No author cited, “Policing the Part: The Communist Party Has Its Own Law for Officials Who Err”, The Economist, 1 September 2012.  The article suggests that Communist Party officials deemed to have misbehaved badly are dealt with not by the Chinese judicial system but by a parallel system that doles out the party’s own brand of justice.  Available at: http://www.economist.com/node/21561895?fsrc=nlw|wwp|8-30-2012|3296332|34237756|.

Sandra Schultz, “How China’s Leaders Steer a Massive Nation”, Spiegel Online, 31 August 2012.  The author examines China’s authoritarian system and asks the question: Are there lessons to be taken from the CPC’s method of governance?  Available at: http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/putting-the-plan-into-action-how-china-s-leaders-steer-a-massive-nation-a-843593.html.

Zhao Yinan, “More Grassroots Members at Party Congress”, China Daily, 14 August 2012.  The 18th National Party Congress, which is scheduled to meet in the second half of this year, will have 30.5 per cent of its delegates representing the frontline of production and work.  .Available at: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2012-08/14/content_15676015.htm.

Geoffrey Cain, “Back to Mao?” a review of the book by Gerald Lemos entitled: The End of the Chinese Dream: Why Chinese People Fear the Future (Yale University Press), in The New Republic, 26 July 2012.  The reviewer quotes Lemos as being prudent in warning that unrest in China will continue, and the divided leadership is ill-equipped to handle the situation, but the unrest stems from the desire for basic security in the daily lives of Chinese, and to their access to health care, education and land rights 00 it is not an open agitation for democracy.  Available at: http://www.tnr.com/book/review/end-chinese-dream-people-fear-future-gerard-lemos.

Yan Xiaojun, “‘To Get Rich Is Not Only Glorious’: Economic Reform and the New Entrepreneurial Party Secretaries”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 210 (June 2012), pp. 335-354.  This article focuses on the “political rise of private entrepreneurs and other economically successful individuals who recently obtained village Party secretary appointments in a north China county and explores their differing promotion channels, power bases, political resources and motivations to take up the CPC grassroots leadership position”.  Available for purchase at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8626980. 

Barry Naughton, “Leadership Transition and the ‘Top-Level Design’ of Economic Reform”, Chinese Leadership Monitor, 2012, No. 37 (30 April).  For several years economic reforms in China have been dead in the water, but a rethinking and rejuvenation of the reformist agenda is now possible and the author examines some of the new policy agendas that are beginning to take shape.  Available at:  http://media.hoover.org/sites/default/files/documents/CLM37BN.pdf.

Cheng Li, “China’s Top Future Leaders to Watch: Biographical Sketches of Possible Members of the Post-2012 Politburo (Part 1), China Leadership Monitor, No. 37, 30 April 2012.  This is the first in a series that will provide concise and primarily fact-based biographies for 25 to 30 possible members of the next Politburo, focusing on the following three aspects: personal and professional background, family and patron-client ties, and political prospects and policy preferences.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/china-leadership-monitor/article/116046

Xinhua, “Migrant Worker’s Journey to CPC National Congress”, People’s Daily, 14 June 2012.  Available at: http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90785/7846743.html.  See also Xinhua, “Majority of Delegates Elected for CPD National Congress”, People’s Daily, 14 June 2012.  Available at: http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90785/7846306.html.

Benjamin Ho, Oh Ei Sun and Liu Liu, “Beijing’s Leadership Transition: Testing Times for China – Analysis”, Eurasia Review, 13 June 2012.  Available at: http://www.eurasiareview.com/13062012-beijings-leadership-transition-testing-times-for-china-analysis/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+eurasiareview%2FVsnE+%28Eurasia+Review%29.

Collected articles in The Economist, 17 – 31 March 2012:

Banyan, “Rewriting the Rules”, 31 March 2012.  The political battle following Bo Xilai’s demise will define China’s future.  Available at: http://www.economist.com/node/21551508/.

No author cited, “Where Bo Goes”, 23 March 2012.  The article gives a commentary on newspaper articles and blogs in China in reference to Bo Xilai and his followers.  Available at: http://www.economist.com/blogs/analects/2012/03/interpreting-purge.

No author cited, “The Sacking of Bo Xilai”, 17 March 2012.  The downfall of Bo is examined as an example of factional squabbles of a few men in Beijing are fought out across the whole nation.  Available at: http://www.economist.com/node/21550309.

No author cited, “Bo Bo Black Sheep”, 17 March 2012.  The article highlights some of the lesser known details of Bo’s dismissal, including the fact that his successor as party chief of Chongqing has a degree in economics from Kim Il Sung University in Pyongyang.  Available at: http://www.economist.com/node/21550325.

T P, “The National People’s Congress: What Worries Grandpa Wen”, The Economist, 14 March 2012.  The author considers possible reasons for Wen’s recent reminders of the importance of China’s political reform   Available at: http://www.economist.com/blogs/analects/2012/03/national-peoples-congress-0?fsrc=nlw%7Cnewe%7C3-15-2012%7Cpolitics_this_week.  A similar commentary from Michael Wines, “In China, A Rare View of infighting by Leaders”, The New York Times, 15 March 2012.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/16/world/asia/infighting-by-chinese-leaders-on-display.html?_r=1&nl=todaysheadlines&emc=edit_th_20120316.

No author cited, “NPC Reform Reflects Vote of Confidence”, People’s Daily, 11 March 2012. New proposals to change the proportion of deputies to the National People’s Congress (NPC) who are members of the Communist Party of China or are government officials were discussed at the latest NPC.  Available at: http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90780/7754363.html

Andrew Higgins, “Chinese Communist Part Frets Over a New Threat: A Book by an Aged Communist”, The Washington Post, 8 March 2012.  Du Guang, a retired professor at the Central Party School, which serves as a think tank as well as ideological boot camp for China’s ruling Communist Party wrote a book of essays does not ridicule the party or call for its overthrow but dissects its theoretical gobbledygook and traces how far it has drifted from its early ideals. The book’s title: Getting Back to Democracy.  Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/chinese-communist-party-frets-over-a-new-threat-a-book-by-an-aged-communist/2012/03/06/gIQAm8iXyR_story.html.

Dan Levin, “China’s Top Party School”, Foreign Policy, 6 March 2012.  As China moves away from traditional communist dogma toward a state-managed capitalist economy and its ensuing social complexities, the Party School has become a laboratory for testing new methods and foreign strategies and deciphering how they can be incorporated into official policy and instructed to the rising stars of the Communist Party.   Available at: http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2012/03/06/china_s_top_party_school?page=0,0.

Tania Branigan, “Xi Jinging: A ‘Princeling” with a Big Personality”, The Guardian, 13 February 2012.  The author comments on the extent to which China’s heir apparent represents a generational as well as a social shift. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/feb/13/xi-jinping-china-economic-reforms.

Keith B. Richburg, “China Confirms Its Official Stayed One Day at US Consulate”, The Washington Post, 10 February 2012.  China’s Foreign Ministry confirmed that Wang Lijun, vice mayor Chongqing, spent one day at the U.S. Consulate in nearby Chengdu and that he is now under official investigation in an episode with potential bearing on China’s upcoming leadership transition.  Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/china-confirms-its-official-stayed-one-day-at-us-consulate/2012/02/09/gIQAZjDm1Q_story.html?wpisrc=nl_headlines.

Cheng Li, “China’s Midterm Jockeying: Gearing Up for 2012 – Part Five: Party Apparatchiks”, China Leadership Monitor, 2011, No. 35 (September).  The essay assesses the career paths, factional identities and political status of the top 56 Party apparatchiks, and gives special attention to the recent tightening of media control and the return of old-fashioned Maoist propaganda.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/china-leadership-monitor/article/93656.

Alice L. Miller, “The Politburo Standing Committee under Hu Jintao”, China Leadership Monitor, 2011, No. 35 (September).  The author suggests that the current structure of the Chinese Communist Party, which is intended to promote collective decision-making on the basis of informed deliberation and consensus and to reinforce stable oligarchic rule, is likely to constrain Hu’s successor, presumed to be Xi Jinping, from substantially reshaping these intentions.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/china-leadership-monitor/article/93646.

Michael Wines, “Photos From China Offer Scant Clues to a Succession”, The New York Times, 14 October 2011.  The article focuses on the speculation over the likely outcome of the annual plenum of the Communist Party’s Central Committee later this month. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/15/world/asia/chinas-coming-leadership-change-leaves-analysts-guessing.html.

Joseph Cheng. “China: Little to No Political Reform”, East Asia Forum, 11 October 2011.  The author suggests that the real danger for the fifth-generation leadership is that while it may detect a need to initiate reform it will not have the political resolve and support to overcome the resistance.  Available at: http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2011/10/11/china-little-to-no-political-reform/.

Keith B. Richburg, “China Sees Surge of Independent Candidates”, The Washington Post, 9 September 2011.  The author reports an increase in the number of ordinary citizens who are challenging the Communist Party’s grip on local people’s congresses.  Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia-pacific/china-sees-surge-of-independent-candidates/2011/09/07/gIQAc7tNEK_story.html.

Kerry Brown, “Chinese Leadership: The Challenge in 2012”, East Asia Forum, 10 July 2011.  The author summarises briefly the previous transition in China’s leadership and suggests that in the next decade the issues will not be about the first battle – to build GDP – but about the conflicts that have come after that to deal with the issues China will face as it progresses towards a middle-income status country.  Available at: http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2011/07/10/chinese-leadership-the-challenge-in-2012/. 

Wieland Wagner, “A New Communist Career Build on the Past”, Spiegel Online, 12 May 2011.  The article examines the rising path to leadership of Bo Xilai, currently the mayor of Chongqing, and comments on his recipe for popular success.  Available at: http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,761770,00.html.

Gregory T. Chin, “Innovation and Preservation: Remaking China’s National Leadership Training System”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 205 (April 2011).  The article considers in detail the reorganisation of China’s national leadership training system and analyses the reforms as an integral element of the Chinese Communist Party’s efforts to adapt its institutions to a rapidly changing environment.  Available for purchase at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8243492&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0305741010001372.

David Barboza, “China Leader Encourages Criticism of Government”, The New York Times, 26 January 2011.  The author comments on the recent practice of Wen Jiabao to encourage citizens to criticise the government and press their cases for social justice.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/27/world/asia/27china.html?ref=world.


Edward Wong and Jonathan Ansfield, “China Grooming Deft Politician as Next Leader”, The New York Times, 23 January 2011.  The authors give a concise account of the political grooming Xi Jinping, who is currently China’s vice presiden and is expected to become president next year.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/24/world/asia/24leader.html?_r=1&nl=todaysheadlines&emc=tha2.


Andrew Higgins, “In China, a Sometimes Opaque Divide Between Power of Party and State”, The Washington Post, 16 January 2011.  In anticipation of the forthcoming Washington visit of Hu Jintao, the author describes the increased diffusion of authority within the Chinese Communist Party and considers its possible effects on US-Chinese bilateral discussions.  Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/01/15/AR2011011504028.html?wpisrc=nl_headline


Xiaoling Zhang, “From Totalitarianism to Hegemony: The Reconfiguration of the Party-State and the Transformation of Chinese Communication”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 20, No. 68 (January 2011), pp. 103-115.  The author seeks an answer to the question: how do media professionals bargain with the state for more autonomy?  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a930898598~frm=abslink.


Richard McGregor, “5 Myths About the Chinese Communist Party”, Foreign Policy, January/February 2011.  Available at: http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/01/02/5_myths_about_the_chinese_communist_party.


Keith B. Richburg, “Rising Leader Xi Jinping's Family Suffered in Chinese Power Struggles”, The Washington Post, 24 October 2010.  Journalist Richburg interviewed Chinese historians to provide a picture of the contrast between Xi Jinping’s background as a “princeling”, having descended from a privileged family, and “tuanpai” such as Hu Jingtao and Wen Jiabao, who came from humbler backgrounds.  Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/23/AR2010102304093.html?hpid=topnews.


Cheng Li, “China’s Midterm Jockeying: Gearing Up for 2012 (Part 4: Top Leaders of Major State-Owned Enterprises)”, China Leadership Monitor, 2011, No. 34 (February).  The author examines the extent to which younger, business-savvy, politically connected and globally minded Chinese CEOs have become a new source of leadership within the Party.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/china-leadership-monitor/article/68001


Alice L. Miller, “The 18th Central Committee Politburo: A Quixotic, Foolhardy, Rashly Speculative, but Nonetheless Ruthlessly Reasoned Projection”, China Leadership Monitor No. 33, June 2010.  This article projects what the 18th Central Committee leadership may look like based on the logic of institutionalisation.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/china-leadership-monitor/article/35461.


Cheng Li, “China’s Midterm Jockeying: Gearing Up for 2012 – Part 3: Military Leaders”, China Leadership Monitor No. 33, June 2010.  The author uses an in-dept analysis to examine the growing belief that current circumstances among the top leaders in China will enhance the military’s influence and power in the years to come.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/china-leadership-monitor/article/35466.


Joseph Fewsmith, “Bo Xilai Takes On Organised Crime”, China Leadership Monitor No. 32 (Spring 2010) from the Hoover Institution.  The author highlights current speculation about a possible rivalry between Bo Xilai, who is the son of senior political leader Bo Yibo, and Wang Yang, who has no special family backgoround, by reporting on the recent activities of the former.  Available at: http://media.hoover.org/documents/CLM32JF.pdf.


Alice L. Miller, “Who Does Xi Jinping Know and How Does He Know Them?” China Leadership Monitor No. 32 (Spring 2010) from the Hoover Institution.  The author examines the group of China’s leaders who have worked with Xi Jinping over his career of 25 years as a provincial leader with a view to assessing who might be associated with him if he succeeds Hu Jingtao as China’s top leader.  Available at: http://media.hoover.org/documents/CLM32AM.pdf.


Victor Shih, Wei Shan and Mingxiang Liu, “Gauging the Elite Political Equilibrium in the CCP:  A Quantitative Approach Using Biographical Data”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 201 (March 2010), pp. 201-103. Using biographies of all Central Committee members from 1921 to 2007, the authors derive a measure of the factional strength of the top CCP leaders for the purpose of determining the extent to which one man could have dominated the Party.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=7398260&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0305741009991081.


He Junzhi, “Independent Candidates in China’s Local People’s Congresses: A Typology”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 19, No. 64, (March 2010), pp. 311-333.  The author shows that the development of independent candidates forms a realistic power locus in China's LPC elections, and to a large extent provides way of evaluating the change in China’s authoritarian regime in the absence of opposition parties.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a919582653.


Cheng Li, “China’s Midterm Jockeying Gearing Up for 2012 - Part 1: Provincial Chiefs”, China Leadership Monitor No. 31 (Winter 2010) from the Hoover Institution.  The author notes that the Politburo and its Standing Committee will be repopulated in 2012 with a large number of new faces and then sheds light on the questions of succession by studying 62 provincial Party secretaries and governors, some of whom are likely to be among China’s decision-makers in the near future.  Available at: http://media.hoover.org/documents/CLM31CL.pdf.


Cheng Li, “China’s Midterm Jockeying: Gearing Up for 2012 – Part 2: Cabinet Ministers”, China Leadership Monitor No.32, (Spring 2010) from the Hoover Institution.  Continuing the report on the reshuffling of political posts in 2012, Cheng Li focuses on the possible post-Wen State Council.  Available at: http://media.hoover.org/documents/CLM32CL.pdf.


Alice L. Miller, “The Preparation of Li Keqiang”, China Leadership Monitor No. 31 (Winter 2010) from the Hoover Institution.  The author considered the possibility that the appointment of Xi Jinping to the Party’s military decision-making body indicated that Hu Jintao was maneuvering to have Li Kiqiang succeed him as the Party General Secretary rather than Xi, but she concluded that Xi remains Hu’s heir apparent and Li continues to prepare to succeed Wen Jiabao as premier.  Available at: http://media.hoover.org/documents/CLM31AM.pdf


Frank N. Pieke, “Marketisation, Centralisation and Globalisation of Cadre Training in Contemporary China”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 200 (December 2009), pp. 953-971.  This article shows that the task of strengthening the ideological and profession training of cadres entails much more than the upgrading of existing institutions.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=6865420&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0305741009990579.


Alan P L Liu, “Rebirth and Secularisation of the Central Party School in China, The China Journal, No. 62 (July 2009), pp. 105-107.  The author examines the recent reduction of social exclusivity of the CPS, as well as its curriculum and ideological diversity, and considers the new requirement for cadre-trainees to research practical problems in Chinese society.  .  Information about the journal is available at: http://rspas.anu.edu.au/ccc/home.htm.


Information about the journal is available at: http://rspas.anu.edu.au/ccc/home.htm


Cheng Li, “The Chinese Communist Party: Recruiting and Controlling the New Elites”, Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, Vol. 8, No. 3 (2009).  Available online at.  http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jcca/article/view/59/59


Anne-Marie Brady and Wang Juntao, “China’s Strengthened New Order and the Role of Propaganda”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 18, Issue 62 (November 2009), pp. 767-788.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~db=all~content=g916765323


David Shambaugh, “Training China’s Political Elite: The Party School System”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 196 (December 2008) pp. 827-844.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayIssue?iid=3310956.


Bruce Gilley and Heike Holbig, “The Debate on Party Legitimacy in China: A Mixed Quantitative/Qualitative Analysis”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 18, Issue 50 (March 2009), pp. 339-358).  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~db=all~content=g908174333.


Melanie Manion, “When Communist Party Candidates Can Lose, Who Wins? Assessing the Role of Local People’s Congresses in the Selection of Leaders in China”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 195 (September 2008), pp. 607-630.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayIssue?iid=2189820.


Cheng Li, “Ethnic Minority Elites in China’s Party-State Leadership: An Empirical Assessment, China Leadership Monitor No. 25, Summer 2008, from the Hoover Institution.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/clm/issues/20102379.html.


Cheng Li, “Intra-Party Democracy in China:  Should We Take It Seriously?” China Leadership Monitor No. 30, Fall 2009, from the Hoover Institution.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/clm/issues/70522952.html.


Stig Thøgersen, “Frontline Soldiers of the CCP: The Selection of China’s Township Leaders”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 194 (June 2008), pp. 414-423.  Downloads may be purchased at:http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayIssue?iid=1905300.


Alice L. Miller, “China’s New Party Leadership”, China Leadership Monitor No. 23, Winter 2008, from the Hoover Institution.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/clm/issues/14128727.html.


Alice L. Miller, “The Case of Xi Jinping and the Mysterious Succession”, China Leadership Monitor No. 30, Fall 2009, from the Hoover Institution.  Note the companion article by James Mulvenon below.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/clm/issues/70522272.html.


James Mulvenon, “The Best Laid Plans: Xi Jinping and the CMC Vice-Chairmanship that Didn’t Happen”, China Leadership Monitor No. 30, Fall 2009, from the Hoover Institution.  Note the companion article by Alice Miller above.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/clm/issues/70522442.html.


Joseph Fewsmith, “A New Upsurge in Political Reform?—Maybe”, China Leadership Monitor No. 24, Spring 2008, from the Hoover Institution.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/clm/issues/16610806.html.


QingshanTan, “China’s Provincial Party Secretaries: Roles, Powers and Constraints”, Discussion Paper 7, China Policy Institute, University of Nottingham, May 2006.  Available at: http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/cpi/documents/discussion-papers/discussion-paper-7-provincial-party-secretaries.pdf


Democratic Institutions


Democratic Institutions


Yucheng Yao, “Village Elections and the Rise of Capitalist Entrepreneurs”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 21, No. 74 (February 2012), pp. 317-332.  The elections examined by the author indicated that little progress had been made in democratic elections and governance, due mainly to the new economic elite who did not want to be held accountable by democratic rules and institutions and to villagers who had not learned to use democratic institutions to hold their elected leaders accountable.  Available for purchase at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10670564.2012.635933.

Yuan Xiaojun, “The Democratising Power of Economic Reform: The Revival of a Representative Institution in Rural China, Problems of Post-Communism, Vol. 58, No. 3 (May/June 2011), pp. 39–52. Liberal economic reforms in the post-Maoist era have deprived the grassroots party-state in rural China of its traditional sources of revenue, thereby gradually transforming it from a socialist renter state into a post-communist taxation state, thus opening institutionalised channels of representation to promote democratic political change at the local level.  Downloads are available for purchase at: http://mesharpe.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,4,6;journal,6,50;linkingpublicationresults,1:110914,1.

Baogang He, “Giving the People a Voice? Experiments with Consultative Authoritarian Institutions in China”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 19, No. 66 (September 2010), pp. 675-692.  The author argues that authoritarian rule in China is now permeated by a wide variety of consultative and deliberative practices that stabilise and strengthen the authoritative rule and used to case studies to present both potentials and limitations.  Downloads are available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10670564.2010.485404.


Yang Yao, “A Chinese Way of Democratisation?” China: An International Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2 (September 2010), pp. 330-345.  The author seeks answers to two questions: (1) why has open demand for democratisation not followed China’s economic progress, and (2) is China indeed creating an enduring form of authoritarianism that beats the conventional logic of social and political transformations.  Available by subscription at: http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/china/v008/8.2.yao.pdf.


Bruce Gilley, “Acts of Resistance in China”, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 21, No. 3 (July 2010), pp. 174-176.  This is a review of a book by Kate Zhou entitled China’s Long March to Freedom in which the author states that “in their manifold attempts to carve out greater personal and group freedoms China’s citizens have decisively shaped the policies of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) regime, limited its power, and ultimately changed its basic nature.”  .  Excerpt is available at: http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_democracy/v021/21.3.gilley.pdf.


Christopher Marsh and Zhifeng Zhong, “Chinese Views on Church and State”, Journal of Church and State, Vol. 52, No. 1 (June 2010), pp. 34-49.  The authors suggest that in a country like China, recovering from decades of authoritarian rule, one must measure liberalisation by the type of intervention the state take into the realm of religion, not by whether or not it intervenes in the first place.  Available at: http://jcs.oxfordjournals.org/content/52/1/34.extract


Andrew Mertha, “‘Fragmented Authoritarianism 2.0: Political Pluralisation in the Chinese Policy Process”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 200 (December 2009), pp. 995-1012.  The author suggests that although China remains authoritarian, it is nevertheless responsive to the increasingly diverse demands of Chinese society.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract;jsessionid=D3117693B6477F1F8A4DBA1C17D3CA57.tomcat1?fromPage=online&aid=6865444. 


John L. Thornton, “Long Time Coming: The Prospects for Democracy in China”, Foreign Affairs, January/February 2008.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/63041/john-l.../long-time-coming.


Cong Riyun, “Nationalism and Democratisation in Contemporary China”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 18, Issue 62 (November 2009), pp. 831-848.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~db=all~content=g916765323.


Kevin J. O’Brien and Rongbin Han, “Path to Democracy? Assessing Village Elections in China”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 18, Issue 60 (June 2009), pp. 359-378.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~db=all~content=g911408249.


Melanie Manion, “How to Assess Village Elections in China”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 18, Issue 60 (June 2009), pp. 379-383.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~db=all~content=g911408249.


Gunter Schubert, “Studying ‘Democratic’ Governance in Contemporary China:  Looking at the Village is Not Enough”, Journal of Contemporary China. Vol. 18, Issue 60 (June 2009), pp. 385-390.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~db=all~content=g911408249.


Björn Alpermann, “Institutionalising Village Governance in China”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 18, Issue 60, (June 2009), pp. 397-409.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~db=all~content=g911408249.


Qingshan Tan, “Building Democratic Infrastructure: Village Electoral Institutions”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 18, Issue 60 (June 2009), pp, 411-420.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~db=all~content=g911408249.


Edmund S. K. Fung, “The Idea of Freedom in Modern China Revisited: Plural Conceptions and Dual Responsibilities”, Modern China, Vol. 32, No. 4 (October 2006), pp. 453-482.  The article approaches the issue of the primacy of collective interests over individual interests in 20th century China by developing the notion of dual responsibilities, or the dualism between the sanctity of personal liberty and the public morality of service to society and state.  Downloads are available for purchase at: http://mcx.sagepub.com/content/32/4/453.full.pdf+html.



Public Sector Policies and Reforms


Public Sector Policies and Reforms


Evan A Feigenbaum and Damien Ma, “The Rise of China’s Reformers?” Foreign Affairs, 17 April 2013.  The authors indicate that most China watchers are gloomy about the near-term prospects for serious economic reform in China.  But they ignore a central lesson of recent Chinese history: reform is possible when the right mix of conditions comes together at the right time.  And the very circumstances that facilitated the last major burst of economic reform in the 1990s are largely present today”.  Available at: file:///C:/Users/HP/Desktop/TO%20READ/The%20Rise%20of%20China's%20Reformers%20%20%20%20Foreign%20Affairs.htm. 


Hu Yongqi and Lan Lan, “Reforms Move with Time”, The Washington Post, 28 March 2013.  The authors report the following:  “As China's new leadership prepares to take charge, the nation has embraced the opportunity to deepen administrative reform by transferring power from the government to market forces and public opinion via a restructuring plan approved by the National People's Congress on March 14.” Available at: http://chinawatch.washingtonpost.com/2013/03/reforms-move-with-time.php.,


Jonathan Mirsky, “How Deng Did It”, a review of the book Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China, by Ezra F. Vogel (The Belknap Press/Harvard University Press 2011), The New York Times, 24 October 2011.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/23/books/review/deng-xiaoping-and-the-transformation-of-china-by-ezra-f-vogel-book-review.html?ref=world.


Graeme Smith, “The Hollow State: Rural Governance in China”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 203 (September 2010), pp. 601-618.  The article examines the process of rationalising and streamlining rural township governments, giving special attention to the pressures on these governments from above as well as below, and the resulting weakening of their capacity to deliver services.  Available for purchase at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=7907518&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0305741010000615.


Jiefen Li, “Administrative Monopoly, Market Economy and Social Justice: An Anatomy of the Taxi Monopoly in Beijing:, China: An International Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2 (September 2010), pp. 282-308.  The author concludes from this case study that only when administrative monopoly is eliminated in China will anti-monopoly actions against other monopolistic behaviour be justified and meaningful.  Available by subscription at: http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/china/v008/8.2.li.pdf.


Joseph Fewsmith, “Institutional Reforms in Xian’an”, China Leadership Monitor No. 33, June 2010.  The author reported on the success of Song Yaping, the Party secretary appointed to Xian’an district of Hubei Province in 2000, when drastic measures were introduced to reduce the size of the cadre force and restructure local government, though the reforms remain controversial.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/china-leadership-monitor/article/35456.


John P. Burns and Wang Xiaoqi, “Civil Service Reform in China: Impacts on Civil Servants’ Behaviour”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 201 (March 2010), pp. 58-78.  The authors conclude that civil service reform was undermined by clashes with other policies that were implemented at the same time and by a failure to address elements of organisational culture that have rewarded various forms of illegal behaviour, such as corruption. Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=7398248&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S030574100999107X.


Xueguang Zhou, “The Institutional Logic of Collusion among Local Governments in China”, Modern China, Vol. 36, No. 1 (January 2010), pp. 47-78.  The author argues that collusion among local governments, though informal, is generated and perpetuated by the institutional logic of the Chinese bureaucracy, results from organisational adaptation to its environment, and hence acquires legitimacy and becomes highly institutionalised.  Downloads may be purchased at:  http://mcx.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/36/1/47.


Christine Wong, “Rebuilding Government for the 21st Century: Can China Incrementally Reform the Public Sector”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 200 (December 2009), pp. 929-952.  This article argues that the reactive, incremental retrenchment of the Chinese government in the 1980s and 1990s, combined with inadequate finance, had broken the intergovernmental fiscal system and created large distortions in the incentive structure facing government agencies and public institutions (shiye danwei). Until the intergovernmental fiscal system is repaired and incentives are fundamentally reformed for the public sector, the top-down program to redirect China's development and build a service-oriented government will have limited effect.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=6865408&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0305741009990567 .  Working paper version is available at: http://www.bicc.ac.uk/Portals/12/Wong%20paper%2012.pdf.


Mingxing Liu, Juan Wang, Ran Tao and Rachel Murphy, “The Political Economy of Earmarked Transfers in a State-Designated Poor Country in Western China: Central Policies and Local Responses”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 200 (December 2009, pp. 273-994.  The authors evaluate the impact of increased fiscal transfers and more stringent regulations on the use of earmarked funds, both of which were initiated by the Chinese government in 2002 in order to improve the effectiveness of redistributive policies.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=6865432&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0305741009990580.


Fan Gang and Wing Thye Woo, “The Parallel Partial Progression (PPP) Approach to Institutional Transformation in Transition Economics”, Modern China, Vol. 35, No. 4 (July 2009), pp. 352-369.  The authors suggest that China’s gradualist approach to economic reform was characterised by the desire to optimise economic coherence rather than the more commonly-held view that the Chinese authorities sought to optimise the policy sequence.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://mcx.sagepub.com/content/35/4/352.full.pdf+html.


Graeme Smith, “Political Machinations in a Rural County”, The China Journal, No. 62 (July 2009), pp. 29-61.  The paper examines the way in which both higher-level and local governments in China redeploy available resources and make use of time-tested political practices and norms in order to respond to immediate practical dilemmas.  Information about the journal is available at: http://rspas.anu.edu.au/ccc/home.htm.



Protest and Other Popular Action


Protests and Other Popular Action

Joseph Fewsmith, “Guangdong Leads Calls to Break Up ‘Vested Interests’ and Revive Reform”, China Leadership Monitor, 2012, No. 37.  The author considers the implications of the September 2011 protest in a Guangdong village that was successfully defused by the party secretary, and which led to a more widely based attack on “vested interests   Available at: http://media.hoover.org/sites/default/files/documents/CLM37AM.pdf.

Joseph Fewsmith, “’Social Management’ as a Way of Coping with Heightened Social Tensions”, China Leadership Monitor, 2012 No. 36 (6 January).  The author examine the extent to which “social management” is used in China as a way of managing increased social tensions in Chinese society, especially in view of the growing role of social media.  Available at: http://media.hoover.org/sites/default/files/documents/CLM36JF.pdf.

*Tania Branigan, “Chinese Villages Clash with Police in Land-Grab Protests”, The Guardian, 3 April 2012.  Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/apr/03/chinese-police-land-grab-protests.

Dr Liu Yu, Jin Jiaman, Yu Hua and Wang Hui, “China’s Challenges: Political Change, Pollution and Protest”, The Guardian, 18 March 2012.  Leading commentators outline the problems – and opportunities – ahead for Beijing.  Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/mar/18/china-challenges-next-generation.

Philip Wen, “Can Wukan’s Experiment Change China?”, The Age, 3 March 2012.  A glimpse of a different side of China is on show in the tiny coastal village of Wukan where democracy is apparently in full swing.  Available at: http://www.theage.com.au/world/can-wukans-experiment-change-china-20120302-1u8id.html.


Raymond Zhou and Tian Xuefei, “Village Rides a Wave of Change”, China Daily, 21 February 2012.  A riverside community found renewed hope in a rejuvenated ecosystem following the loss of farmland.  Available at: http://www2.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2012-02/21/content_14654962.htm.


Ho-fung Hung, “Confucianism and Political Dissent in China”, East Asia Forum, 26 July 2011.  The author suggests that the escalating popular violence against local authorities and humble petition to the central government in the last two decades should be understood in light of this longstanding Confucianist conception of authority, and the growing social unrest will not necessarily destabilise the authoritarian status quo. .Available at: http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2011/07/26/confucianism-and-political-dissent-in-china/


Graham Smith, “The Hollow State: Rural Governance In China”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 203 (September 2010), pp. 601-615.  While the aim of local government reform was to transform extractive township governments into “service-oriented” agencies, this article finds that the current logic of rural governance has produced township governments which are squeezed from above and below. Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayIssue?iid=7907494,


Benjamin van Rooij, “The People vs. Pollution: Understanding Citizen Action Against Pollution in China”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 19, No. 63 (January 2010), pp. 55-77.  This paper analyses public activism by studying how citizens identify the necessity to initiate action against pollution and by investigating the obstacles they meet when attempting to take action.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a918907731.


Lianjiang Li and Kevin J. O’Brien, “Protest Leadership in Rural China”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 193 (March 2008), pp. 1-23.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayIssue?iid=1809132.


Elaine Jeffreys, “Exposing Police Corruption and Malfeasance: China’s Virgin Prostitute Cases”, The China Journal, No. 63 (Jan 2010), pp. 127-151.  The author examines media coverage of the “virgin female whoremonger case” with a view to evaluating the belief that “"China's media have become increasingly critical in their news coverage, exposing alleged wrongdoing, criticising officials for failure to address injustice, and influencing both the outcome of individual disputes and the interpretation of existing legislation.  Information about the journal is available at: http://rspas.anu.edu.au/ccc/home.htm.


Kevin J. O’Brien, editor, Popular Protects in China, Harvard University Press, 2008.  Further information is available at: http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/OBRPOP.html?show=catalogcopy.



The Start of the Xi Jinping Era


Alice L Miller, “Prospects for Solidarity in the Xi Jinping Leadership”, China Leadership Monitor, 2012, No. 37 (30 April).  The author assets that if projections of trouble in China’s economy ahead are accurate, then it is reasonable to inquire into the prospects of an oligarchic leadership around Xi maintaining collective solidarity and providing effective responses – and then she proceeds to do that.  Available at: http://media.hoover.org/sites/default/files/documents/CLM37AM.pdf


*James Mulvenon and Leigh Ann Ragland, “Liu Yuan: Archetype of a ‘Xi Jinping Man’ in the PLA?” China Leadership Monitor, 2012, No. 36 (6 January).  As Xi prepares to ascdent to the highest positions in the political system at the 18th Party Congress, this article endeavours to profile Liu Yuan, identify his possible ideological and bureaucratic commonalities with Xi Jinping and assess the implications for PLA promotions and party/military relations in the Xi era.  Available at: http://media.hoover.org/sites/default/files/documents/CLM36JM.pdf,



Concepts and Campaigns



Hu Jintao’s Concepts and Campaigns


James Mulvenon, “Party-Military Coordination of the Yushu Earthquake Response”, China Leadership Monitor No. 33, June 2010.  The paper analyses Beijing’s response to the Yushu earthquake in searching for insights about the relations between the Party and China’s military as well as progress in natural disaster relief operations that comprise one of Hu Jingao’s “new historic missions”.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/china-leadership-monitor/article/35446.


Mathieu Duchâtel and François Godement, “China’s Politics under Hu Jintao”, Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, Vol. 8, No. 3 (2009).  Available online at: http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jcca/article/view/58/58.


Heike Holbig, ‘Remaking the CCP’s Ideology: Determinants, Progress and Limits under Hu Jintao,  Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, Vol. 8, No. 3 (2009).  Available online at: http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jcca/article/view/60/60.


Jean-Pierre Cabestan, “China’s Foreign- and Security-policy Decision-making Processes under Hu Jintao”, Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, Vol. 8, No. 3 (2009).  Available online at: http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jcca/article/view/61/61.


Alice L. Miller, “Hu Jintao and the PLA Brass”, China Leadership Monitor No. 21, Spring 2007, from the Hoover Institution.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/clm/issues/8535287.html.


Alice L. Miller, “Leadership Presses Party Unity in Time of Economic Stress”, China Leadership Monitor No. 28, Spring 2009, from the Hoover Institution.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/clm/issues/44613442.html.


James Mulvenon, “Hu Jintao and ‘Core Values of Military Personnel’”, China Leadership Monitor No. 28, Spring 2009, from the Hoover Institution.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/clm/issues/44612967.html.




Xi Jinping and Possible Changes in Concepts and Campaigns


Tania Branigan, “Xi Jinping: A ‘Princeling’ with a Big Personality”, The Guardian, 13 February 2012.  The article begins with the statement: “His name is becoming more familiar but his face is still unknown to most and his opinions and intentions are an enigma”.  Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/feb/13/xi-jinping-china-economic-reforms.


Liberalism and Civil Society


Liberalism and Civil Society


Evan Osborne, “China’s First Liberal”, The Independent Review, Vol. 16, No. 4 (Spring 2012), pp. 533-551. The author examined the work of the Chinese philosopher Mozi (470-391 BCE) with special reference to his “proto-advocacy of equality before the law and his recognition of the dangers of the predatory state, his antiwar liberalism, and his anticipation of the modern liberal conception of the rational self-interested social order”.  Available at: http://www.independent.org/publications/tir/article.asp?a=880 for purchase of the single issue, or for free download in 6 months time (approximately September 2012).


Andrew Jacobs, “Chirps and Cheers: China’s Crickets Clash”, The New York Times, 5 November 2011.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/06/world/asia/chirps-and-cheers-chinas-crickets-clash-and-bets-are-made.html?nl=todaysheadlines&emc=tha22.




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