The Australia-China Chamber of Commerce and Industry
of New South Wales













Case Studies

China’s Great Uprooting

Gated Communities

Globalisation and Modernity

The Hukou System Updated

Land and Housing Markets

Self-Government and Urban Civil Life


Transforming Rural China


Urban and Rural Inequalities


Last Updated: 19 January 2015



Note that a new monitoring section has been added:

“China’s Great Uprooting”



Comments are invited on anything contained in the listed documents and suggestions for additional linked documents are encouraged.


Email to: Policy@accci.com.au


Case Studies


Case Studies


No author cited, “Coming Down to Earth,” The Economist, 18 April, 2015.  Available at: http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21648567-chinese-growth-losing-altitude-will-it-be-soft-or-hard-landing-coming-down-earth.  In the article Zhengzhou is used as a case study in examining whether the current slowdown in China “will be a gradual descent – a little bumpy at times but free from crisis – or a sudden, dangerous lurch lower.”


Chaney Kwak, “Beijing’s Back Alleys Make a Comeback”, The Washington Post, 5 April 2013.  Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/travel/beijings-back-alleys-make-a-comeback/2013/04/04/d14c5514-9630-11e2-9e23-09dce87f75a1_story.html#.  The author explores an urban maze that was created by the city’s old hutongs, or back alleys.  Many of these have disappeared to allow for skyscrapers and motorways, but some remain and are being “gentrified”.


Jonathan Unger, “Guangdong: Collective Land Ownership and the Making of a New Middle Class”, East Asia Forum, 18 May 2012.  Available at: http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2012/05/18/guangdong-collective-land-ownership-and-the-making-of-a-new-middle-class/.  The article briefly examines the impact of the continuing practice of converting land rights that were part of rural collectives into village-owned property companies in urban areas.


Yok-Shiu F. Lee, Carlos Wing-Hung Lo and Anna Ka-Yin Lee, “Strategy Misguided: The Weak Links Between Urban Emission Control Measures, Vehicular Emissions and Public Health in Quangzhou”.  Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 19, No. 63 (January 2010), pp. 37-54.  The authors present evidence from Guangzhou to suggest that the city's strategy for controlling urban air pollution has not been effective in tackling the newly emerging, combustion engine-generated class of pollutants because it is misguided by a highly selective and outdated urban air quality monitoring system.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a918908364


Zhen Yang and Miao Xu, “Evolution, Public Use and Design of Central Pedestrian Districts in Large Chinese Cities: A Case Study of Nanjing Road, Shanghai”, Urban Design International, Vol. 14 (2009), pp. 84-98.  This paper examines the recent redevelopment process and physical manifestations of Nanjing Road, looking at both the positives and negatives in terms of its design and management.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/udi/journal/v14/n2/abs/udi200911a.html.


Ya Ping Wang and Yanglin Wang and Jiansheng Wu, “Urbanization and Informal Development in China: Urban Villages in Shenzhen”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 33, No. 4 (2009), pp. 957-973.  The article first reviews the urbanisation and migration process in relation to emergence of urban villages, and then examines informal housing, commercial and industrial developments in these villages.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2009.00891.x/abstract.


Fei Chen and Ombretta Romice, “Preserving the Cultural Identity of Chinese Cities in Urban Design through a Typomorphological Approach”, Urban Design International, Vol. 14 (2009), pp. 36-54.  This paper analyses the historical process of transformation of the urban blocks, plots and building fabrics in Suzhou, China from the tenth century to the present day using a typomorphological approach, and offers some design suggestions for urban designers and policy-makers based on the examination of the local context.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/udi/journal/v14/n1/abs/udi20096a.html.


Zhaohua Deng, “Design Control in Post-Reform China: A Case Study of Shenzhen’s Commercial Office Development”, Urban Design International, Vol. 14 (2009), pp. 118-136.  This paper explores current trends in design review in China, in order to understand its objectives and achievements, and to see how the political and economic conditions of a city affect both the control process and the design outcome.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/udi/journal/v14/n2/abs/udi200913a.html.


Alan Smart and George C.S. Lin, “Local Capitalisms, Local Citizenship and Translocality: Rescaling from Below in the Pearl River Delta Region, China”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 31, No. 2, (June 2007) pp. 280-302.  This is a detailed case study of the practices of localism in the Dongguan city-region and it reveals the ways in which the emergence of capitalism has been dependent on pre-existing social connections based on villages and townships.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118511967/abstract.


Aimen Chen, “Urbanisation in China and the Case of Fujian Province” Modern China, Vol. 32, No. 1 (January 2006), pp. 99-130.  The article indicates that attention needs to be paid to issue of broad significance in China, such as the role of government in urbanisation, the challenge of transforming a low-value-added economy, and how to address the socioeconomic repercussions of the urbanisation process.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://online.sagepub.com.


John Zacharias, “Generating Urban Lifestyle: The Case of Hong Kong New-Town Design and Local Travel Behaviour”, Journal of Urban Design, Vol. 10, No. 3 (October 2005), pp. 371-386.  The case study reports that features of the town-centre design, details of the movement system and local environmental design all explain the differences in local travel behaviour.  Downloads may be purchased from: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a727328785?words=china,urban,development,design.


Le-Yin Zhang, “Economic Development in Shanghai and the Role of the State”, Urban Studies, Vol. 40, No. 8 (July 2003), pp. 1549-1572.  The author analyses the key factors that have contributed to the economic development in Shanghai during the 1990s and assesses critically the role of the state in this process.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a713706106~db=all.


Kerrie L. Macpherson, “The Head of the Dragon: The Pudong New Area and Shanghai’s Urban Development”, Planning Perspectives, Vol. 9, No. 1 (January 1994) pp, 61-85.  This paper investigates the historical roots of the Pudong New Area as one aspect in the problems of national reconstruction and metropolitan growth that has absorbed the energies of successive Chinese regimes as they move toward modernisation.  Downloads may be purchased at:  http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a778260388?words=china,urban,development,design.




China’s Great Uprooting


Click here for a brief comment and introduction to this series of articles.  Translated into online Simplified Chinese.


Ian Johnson, “China’s Great Uprooting: Moving 250 Million into Cities,” Leaving the Land – Part 1, The New York Times, 15 June 2013.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/16/world/asia/chinas-great-uprooting-moving-250-million-into-cities.html.


Ian Johnson, “Pitfalls Abound in China’s Push from Farm to City,” Leaving the Land – Part 2, The New York Times, 13 July 2013.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/14/world/asia/pitfalls-abound-in-chinas-push-from-farm-to-city.html.



Gated Communities



Gated Communities


Miao Xu and Zhen Yang, “Design History of China’s Gated Cities and Neighbourhoods:  Prototype and Evolution”, Urban Design International, Vol. 14 (2009), pp. 99-117.  The main point of the authors is that any comprehensive understanding of gated community in contemporary China can only be achieved if the significance of the historical and local socio-political context is fully appreciated.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/udi/journal/v14/n2/abs/udi200912a.html.


Miao Xu and Zhen Yang, “Theoretical Debate on Gated Communities:  Genesis, Controversies and the Way Forward”, Urban Design International, Vol. 13 (2008), pp. 213-226.  The paper indicates reveals that the market demand for gated communities will continue and even become stronger as long as the political–economical transformation steered by neoliberalism is sustained.  Downloads may be purchased at:  http://www.palgrave-journals.com/udi/journal/v13/n4/abs/udi200829a.html

Globalisation and Modernity


Globalisation and Modernity



Nicola Davison, “China’s Obsession with Vertical Cities,” The Guardian, 30 October 2014. By the end of next year one-in-three of the world’s 100 mitre-plus skyscrapers will be in China, as its state-orchestrated urbanisation drive prompts a megacity building bonanza.  Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/cities/2014/oct/30/china-obsession-vertical-cities-skyscrapers-urbanisation-megacity.


HKTDC, “China to Build 10 Regional City Clusters,” Hong Kong Trade Development Council Research Group, 29 August 2013.  The article lists the 10 city clusters that are being planned, over half of which are located in central and western regions of China.  Available at: http://economists-pick-research.hktdc.com/business-news/article/Business-Alert-China/China-to-build-10-regional-city-clusters/bacn/en/1/1X000000/1X09U9BY.htm.


Ian Johnson, “Faking It in China,” New York Review of Books, 6 June 2013.  The author suggests that “new architecture, when it is notable, is nearly always by foreigners or copying foreign styles, a tendency that has led Western architects to flood into China, often with second-rate projects for sale.” Where appropriate the suggestion is supported with photos from Bianca Bosker’s Original Copies: Architectural Mimicry in Contemporary China (University of Hawaii Press).  Available at: http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2013/jun/06/faking-it-china/.


Paul Webster and Jason Burke, “How the Rise of the Megacity is Changing the Way We Live”, The Guardian, 21 January 2012.  The rapid increase in the number of cities that are home to more than 10 million people will bring huge challenges – and opportunities.  Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2012/jan/21/rise-megacity-live.


Wang Xiaolu, “The Route of Urbanisation in China”, East Asia Forum, 23 November 2011.  The author suggests that a market-friendly urbanisation policy framework, together with carefully designed government measures to deal with potential positive and negative externalities, will accelerate the urbanisation process in China.  Available at:  http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2011/11/23/the-route-of-urbanisation-in-china/


Johathan Watts, “Beijing to Sweeten Stench of Rubbish Crisis with Giant Deodorant Guns”, The Guardian, 26 March 2010.  Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/mar/26/beijing-rubbish-deodorant.


John Friedmann, “Four Theses in the Study of China's Urbanisation”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Development, Vol. 30, No. 3 (September 2006), pp. 440-451.  A major point of the article is the nature of China's urbanisation, although entwined with globalization processes, is to be understood chiefly as an endogenous process leading to a specifically Chinese form of modernity.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2006.00671.x/abstract


Jiang Xu and Anthony G.O. Yeh, “City Repositioning and Competitiveness Building in Regional Development: New Development Strategies in Guangzhou, China”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 29, No. 2 (September 2005), pp. 283-308.  Global forces and regional restructuring have caused a relative economic decline in some historically powerful cities, and have also brought about the emergence of new economic centres, all of which has created a series of new competitive strategies.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2005.00585.x/abstract.

The Hukou System Updated


The Hukou System Updated


Li Bingqin, “China’s Hukou Reform a Small Step in the Right Direction,” East Asia Forum, 13 January 2015.  Recent reforms makes it easier for migrants to settle into small, and also (to some extent) medium-sized cities, but further reforms in social services policy are needed to address deep inequalities between urban and rural areas, and among cities in China.  Available at: http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2015/01/13/chinas-hukou-reform-a-small-step-in-the-right-direction/.


No author cited, “The Rural-Urban Divide: Ending Apartheid,” The Economist, 16 April 2014.  The article points out that in order for reforms to work in China, its citizens must be made more equal. Available at: http://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21600798-chinas-reforms-work-its-citizens-have-be-made-more-equal-ending-apartheid.


Clarissa Sebag-Montefiore, “Shanty China”, The New York Times, 14 May 2013.  The author suggests that the promise of social change has kept Beijing’s slums contained, but reiterates the warning by Tom Miller (author of China’s Urban Billion: The Story Behind the Biggest Migration in Human History) that without a reform of the hukou system and the development of affordable mass housing, by 2030 almost half of the one billion Chinese who live in cities will belong to a “giant underclass.”  Available at: http://latitude.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/14/even-slum-dwellers-in-china-are-upbeat-about-progress/?ref=global-home.


Chunping Han, “Attitudes Toward Government Responsibility for Social Services: Comparing Urban and Rural China”, International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Vol. 24, No. 4 (Winter 2012) pp. 472-494.  The author determined that Chinese of rural origin, particularly rural residents staying in the countryside, are less likely than urban residents to demand government intervention in social services, and attributed this result largely to the divisive nature of the household registration (hukou) system.  Available for purchase at: http://ijpor.oxfordjournals.org/


Getta Hochhar, “Market and Migrants: Redefining China’s Urban Social Welfare System”, China: an International Journal, Vol. 8 No. 2 (September 2010), pp. 193-219.   This paper analyses how social welfare benefits are distributed among urban and rural populations in the urban centres, what changes have taken place with the introduction of a market economy and the nature of evolving welfare programmes in China.  Available by subscription at: http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/china/v008/8.2.kochhar.pdf.


John R. Logan, Yiping Fang and Zhanxin Zhang, “Access to Housing in Urban China”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 33, No. 4 (December 2009), pp. 914-935.  In addition to the well-known marginal housing situation of China’s floating population, the study documents the advantages accruing to migrants with urban registration status and shows the persistent disadvantages for rural migrants regardless of how long they have lived in the city.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123194405/abstract.


Chuncui Velma Fan, Peter V Hall and Geoffrey Wall, “Migration, Hukou Status and Labour Market Segmentation: The Case of High-Tech Development in Dalian”, Environment and Planning A, Vol. 41, No. 7 (2009), pp. 1647-1666.  The authors found that in certain high-tech industries the increasingly decentralised decision making of local urban development policy and shortages of skilled workers are leading to a selective relaxation of the hukou system.  Available at: http://ideas.repec.org/a/pio/envira/v41y2009i7p1647-1666.html.


John Knight and Linda Yueh, “Segmentation or Competition in China’s Urban Labour Market?” Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol. 33, No. 1 (January 2009), pp. 79-94.  The study results indicated that the labour markets in China remain segmented as a result of continuing mobility constraints in China, but competition between urban labour and migrant labour is increasing.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://cje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/ben025v1.


Kam Wing Chan and Will Buckingham, “Is China Abolishing the Hukou System?” The China Quarterly, Vol. 195 (September 2008), pp. 582-607.  The article suggests that the cumulative effect of the hukou reforms has been the devolution of responsibility to local governments and this has not resulted in its abolition.  Available at: http://faculty.washington.edu/stevehar/Chan%20and%20Buckingham.pdf.


Xiaojiang Hu, Miguel A Salazar, The China Journal, “Ethnicity, Rurality and Status: Hukou and the Institutional and Cultural Determinants of Social Status in Tibet”, No. 60 (July 2008), pp. 1-22.  The authors examine the relation between ethnicity and urban-rural status in order to achieve a better understanding of social stratification and social tensions in the western regions of China.  Information about the journal is available at: http://rspas.anu.edu.au/ccc/home.htm.


Whitney Grey, “Migrant Education in Beijing: Hukou and the Future of Human Capital Development”, prepared for the Western Political Science Association annual meeting, 21 March 2008.  The purpose of the paper is to give an overview of how the hukou policy has evolved since its inception in the 1950s, under economic reforms, and under more recent changes with special emphasis on the impact of the policy on education. Available at: www.allacademic.com/meta/p237774_index.html..


C. Cindy Fan, “Migration, Hukou and the Chinese City”, Shahid Yusuf (ed.), China Urbanises: Consequences, Strategies and Policies, World Bank, January 2008.  The chapter reviews major issues and findings in the recent literature on migration in China, focusing on the hukou system and reform, migration patterns and changes since the 1980s.  The chapter may be downloaded separately at: http://china.usc.edu/App_Images//Fan.pdf.  The book may be ordered at: http://publications.worldbank.org/ecommerce/catalog/product?item_id=6924360.


US Congress, Congressional-Executive Commission on China, “China’s Household Registration System”, 7 October 2005.  The document examines the uneven reforms to the hukou system and considers the extent to which they discriminate against poor migrant workers in favor of the wealthy and educated urban workers. Available at: http://www.cecc.gov/pages/news/hukou.pdf?PHPSESSID=1eb227f4ddf74f1ac110962961e35b01.


Zhiqiang Liu, “Institution and Inequality: the Hukou System in China”, Journal of Comparative Economics, Vol. 33, No. 1 (2005), pp. 133-157. The author concludes that the hukou system is a major contributing factor to rural-urban inequality and gives an estimate the value of an urban hukou to rural individuals. Downloads may be purchased at:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01475967.

Land and Housing Markets


Land and Housing Markets in China


No author cited, “Emerging from the Shadows: Local Government, The Economist, 19 April 2014.  The article focuses on the consequences of seizing land and running up debts in order to finance local government.  Available at: http://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21600803-seizing-land-and-running-up-debts-no-way-finance-local-government-emerging


Jiangnan Zhu, “Land and Housing Markets in China”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 21, No. 74 (February 2012), pp/ 243-260.  The author suggests that the expansion of official players in the urban land development process contributes to corruption as an unintended consequence of regulatory reform.  Available for purchase at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10670564.2012.635929.


*Wooyeal Paik and Kihyun Lee, “I Want to Be Expropriated!”The Politics of xianchanquanfang Land Development in Sururban China”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 21, No. 74 (February 2012).  The author approaches the issues relating to “urban villages” by treating it as an example of the principle of “rightful resistance”.  Available for purchase at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10670564.2012.635930.


Yew Chiew Ping, “Explaining Land Use Change in a Guangdong County: The Supply Side of the Story”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 207 (September 2011), pp. 626-648.  The author examines land use conversion from the perspective of control over the supply of agricultural land to be converted for non-agricultural purposes, and therefore places emphasis on the factors such as fiscal and land resources at the disposal of local officials.  Available for purchase at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8385804.


Danning Wang, “Intergenerational Transmission of Family Property and Family Management in Urban China”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 294 (December 2010), pp. 960-980. The author argues that By flexibly shifting powerful domestic roles, senior women, in particular, work with their adult sons in order to transmit the domestic resources necessary to secure the filial services to which they feel entitled.  Available for purchase at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayIssue?jid=CQY&tab=currentissue.


Deborah Davis, “Who Gets the House? Renegotiating Property Rights in Post-Socialist Urban China”, Modern China, Vol. 36, No. 5 (September 2010), pp. 463-492. The author looks at several ways in which privatisation of urban housing in China has altered the basic parameters of household dissolution from those that prevailed before 1980.   Downloads may be purchased at: http://mcx.sagepub.com/content/36/5/463.full.pdf+html.


Jonathan E. Leightner, “Alternative Property Systems for China”, China: An International Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2 (September 2010), pp. 346-359.  The author points out several anomalies, which were carry-overs from the Maoist era, in China’s current property system and suggests ways of improving the system. Available by subscription at: http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/china/v008/8.2.leightner.pdf.


Barry Naughton, “The Turning Point in Housing”, China Leadership Monitor, No. 33, June 2010.  Naughton reports that China reached an important turning point in housing policy in April 2010 when policy shifted from stimulating growth to controlling speculative demand for housing.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/china-leadership-monitor/article/35451,


Joseph Fewsmith, “Tackling the Land Issue--Carefully”, China Leadership Monitor, No. 27, January 2009.  The author suggests that after the Household Responsibility System reinstituted family farming, China began to experience another major change in rural life as commercial agriculture spreads and as peasants migrate to the cities.  Available at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/china-leadership-monitor/article/5537.


Zhu Qian, “Empirical Evidence from Hangzhou’s Urban Land Reform: Evolution, Structure, Constraints and Prospects”, Habitat International, Vol. 32, No. 4 (December 2008).  This study analyses the evolution of urban land reform in Hangzhou for the purpose of determining the emerging structure for an important urban land market, with specific reference to the constraints in China's urban land reforms.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/479/description.


Anne Haile, “The Market as the New Emperor”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 31, No. 1, (February 2007) pp. 3-20.  The author gives a critical evaluation of studies relating to the emergence of land markets in China and highlights what she considers to be weaknesses, ambiguities and insufficient empirical evidence associated with the perceived need to develop property rights in China.  Downloads may be purchased at:  http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118511936/abstract.


Jieming Zhu, “Anne Haila's 'The Market as the New Emperor'”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vo. 33, No. 2 (2009), pp. 555-557.  This is a brief commentary on Anne Haila’s paper on land markets in China with the author underscoring the importance of viewing issue in the context of China’s gradual phase-out of central planning as economic reforms are introduced.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122485988/abstract.


Shujie Yao and Dan Luo, “Impact of the US Credit Crunch and Housing Market Crisis on China”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 19, No. 64 (March 2010), pp. 401-417.  China's booming house market has been supported by fast economic growth, rapid urbanisation and high domestic savings, while Chinese banks have also been less exposed to mortgage defaults than their Western counterparts.  So relatively little impact is expected for China.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a919582756.

Self-Government and Urban Civil Life


Self-Government and Urban Civil Life


Selina Ching Chan, “Cultural Governance and Place-Making in Taiwan and China”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 206 (June 2011), pp. 372-390.  This article compares cultural governance in Taiwan and China through their respective place-making processes and concludes that communal relations have deteriorated in China, but strengthened in Taiwan.  Available for purchase at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8309548&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0305741011000312.


John Freidmann, “Reflections on Place and Place-Making in the Cities of China”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 31, No. 2 (June 2007), pp. 257-279.  The author introduces the concept of place and proceeds to examine the process of place-making in an historical context, from Imperial China to the current period.  Downloads may be purchased at:



Jie Chen, Chunlong Lu and Yiyin Yang, “Popular Support for Grassroots Self-Government in Urban China”, Modern China, Vol. 33, No. 4, (October 2007), pp. 505-528.  In analysing grassroots support for a system of self-government, the study found that the type of housing complex was a socio-political contextual factor that help shape support.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://online.sagepub.com.


John Zacharias and Desmond Bliek, “The Role of Urban Planning in the Spontaneous Redevelopment of Huaquanbei, Shenzhen”, Journal of Urban Design, Vol. 13, Issue 3 (October 2008) pp. 345-360.  The paper offers a case study of a relatively successful planning and design activity for the redevelopment of former industrial estates in China.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~db=all~content=g902061753.





OECD, “Urbanisation and Green Growth in China”, OECD Regional Development Working Papers, No. 7 (2013).  The working paper is an assessment of China’s national policy and governance mechanisms that can influence green growth in Chinese cities.  It applies the OECD conceptual framework for urban green growth to examine the potential challenges and opportunities for increasing economic growth through reducing the environmental impact of urban land use, transport and buildings; through improving water and air quality; and through fostering supply and demand of green products and services.  http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/download/5k49dv68n7jf.pdf?expires=1370070417&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=B0349A0991C164488B1045A90EBEC751


Jonathan Woetzel, Lenny Mendonca, Janamitra Devan, Stefano Negri, Yangmel Hu, Luke Jordan, Xiujun Li, Alexander Maasry, Geoff Tsen, Flora Yu, et al., “Preparing for China’s Urban Billion”, McKinsey Global Institute Report, February 2009.  The study team found that an urgent shift in focus from solely driving GDP growth to an agenda of boosting urban productivity, achieving the same or better economic results with fewer resources, is not only an opportunity but a necessity.  Available at: http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/mgi/research/urbanization/preparing_for_urban_billion_in_china.


David Rousseau and Yi Chen, “Sustainability Options for China’s Residential Building Sector”, Building Research and Information, Vol. 29, No. 4 (July 2002), pp. 293-301.  The authors conclude that China’s urban development requires improvements in clean industry technology, durable and energy efficient building systems, renewable energy systems, and environmental cleanup and recycling systems.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a713762812?words=china,urban,development,design.


Transforming Rural China


Transforming Rural China (to Offset Urban Bias)


Jonathan Watts, “Huaxi: The Village That Towers Above China”, The Guardian, 6 October 2011.  Until recently, Huaxi was a poor farming community, typical of eastern China. Now, thanks to the ambition of one man, it is a powerhouse symbol of the country's economic expansion, embodied by a giant 328m-tall tower.  Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/06/huaxi-village-tower-china.


Heather Xiaoquan Zhang, “Transforming Rural China: Beyond the Urban Bias? Introduction”, Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, Vol. 38, No. 4 (2009).  The title of the introduction is the featured topic of the Vol. 38, No. 4 issue of the journal, and the preface comments on the six other articles in the issue.  Available at: http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jcca.


Stig Thøgersen, “Revising a Dramatic Triangle: The State, Villagers, and Social Activists in Chinese Rural Reconstruction Projects, Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, Vol. 38, No. 4 (2009).  The author notes that the state is still the major player in rural reconstruction, but traditional top-down procedures are often perceived to be unproductive with micro-level community building, so officials are forced to find allies among village elites as well as social activists.  Available at: http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jcca


Anna L. Ahlers, “Building a New Socialist Countryside” – Only a Political Slogan?” Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, Vol. 38, No. 4 (2009).  The paper suggests that it is more than a political slogan and has the potential to successfully overcome rural poverty and the rural-urban divide.  Available at: http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jcca.


Norman Long and Jinlong Liu, “The Centrality of Actors and Interfaces in the Understanding of New Ruralities: A Chinese Case Study”, Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, Vol. 38, No. 4 (2009).  The author examines an EU-funded project that introduced village-level forest-management practices in northwest China.  Available at: http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jcca.


Andrew Watson, “Social Security for China’s Migrant Workers—Providing for Old Age”, Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, Vol. 38, No. 4 (2009).  The focus of the paper is on the planned introduction of policy reforms to improve the social security of migrant workers. Available at: http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jcca


Xingqing Ye, “China’s Urban-Rural Integration Policies”, Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, Vol. 38, No. 4 (2009).  The author gives a summary and analysis of a keynote speech on the main initiatives of urban-rural policies including their rationale and context.  Available at: http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jcca.


John Q. Tian, “Reorganising Rural Public Finance: Reforms and Consequences”, Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, Vol. 38, No. 4 (2009).  This article examines recent reforms to restructure rural public finance in China and the impact they have had on local-government finance.  Available at: http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jcca.

Urban and Rural Inequalities


Urban and Rural Inequalities


Chuliang Luo, “Economic Restructuring, Informal Jobs and Pro-Poor Growth in Urban China”, Asian Economic Journal, Vol. 25, No. 1 (March 2011), pp. 79-98.  Based on household survey data and the framework of pro-poor growth, the article discusses how economic growth and inequality affect poverty reduction in urban China.  Full article is available in PDF at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8381.2011.02048.x/pdf.


*Andrew Jacobs, “Land Dispute Stirs Riots in Southern China”, The New York Times, 23 September 2011.  Rioters besieged government buildings and attacked police officers during two days of protests against the seizure of farmland, said officials in Shanwei.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/24/world/asia/land-dispute-stirs-riots-in-southern-china.html


Bjorn A. Gustafsson and Deng Quheng, “Di Bao Receipt and Its Importance for Combating Poverty in Urban China”, Poverty and Public Policy, Vol. 3, No. 1, Article 10 (2011). The authors conclude that while social assistance payments in China appear strongly targeted to the poor, as the Di Bao payments typically are small and many of the urban poor are not receivers, much urban poverty remains.  Available at: http://www.psocommons.org/ppp/vol3/iss1/art10.


Shaoguang Wang, Deborah Davis and Yanje Bian, “The Uneven Distribution of Cultural Capital: Book Reading in Urban China”, Modern China, Vol. 32, No. 3 (July 2006), pp. 315-348.  Authors suggest that cultural capital, measured, for example, on the basis of reading habits, varies across social classes independent of education, and that cultural capital can be a useful concept for the analysis of inequality and social stratification in contemporary urban China.  Available at: http://online.sagepub.com.


Yusheng Peng, “What Has Spilled Over from Chinese Cities into Rural Industry”, Modern China, Vol. 33, No. 3 (July 2007), pp. 187-319.  Shows that cities with a large stock of technical personnel and high consumer market potential tend to foster rural non-agricultural growth in the surrounding counties, whereas cities with a high concentration of state industrial capital tend to suppress it.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://online.sagepub.com.


Zhou Yingying, Han Hua and Stevan Harrell, “From Labour to Capital: Intra-Village Inequality in Rural China, 1988–2006”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 195 (September 2008) pp. 515-534.   In this study of three villages in Sichuan Province, the authors found that income inequality had increased quite dramatically as a result of a shift from labour-power activities to small-scale capital activities.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=2189824&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0305741008000751.


Qian Forrest Zhang, “Retreat from Equality or Advance towards Efficiency? Land Markets and Inequality in Rural Zhejiang”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 195 (September 2008), pp. 535-557.  This study found increased disparities in land distribution to be the result of growth of land markets, increased rural income and greater productivity through land ownership.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=2189832&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0305741008000763.


Yu Xie and Xiaogang Wu, “Danwei Profitability and Earnings Inequality in Urban China”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 195 (September 2008), pp. 558-581. Using survey data from Wuhan, Shanghai and Xi’an authors assess the extent to which workers' earnings (including regular wages, bonuses and subsidies) depend on the profitability of their work unit (danwei).  Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=2189840&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0305741008000775.


Youqin Huang and Leiwen Jiang, “Housing Inequality in Transitional Beijing”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 33, No. 4 (2009), pp. 936-956.  This article provides a conceptual framework and an empirical analysis of housing inequality in transitional urban China using census data for Beijing.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123208726/abstract.


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