The Australia-China Chamber of Commerce and Industry
of New South Wales










Monitoring Economic, Political, Cultural and Environmental Developments


General Background


ACCCI information on key cities in China:  http://www.accci.com.au/keycity/kcintro.htm.

Index to ACCCI key cities in China:  http://www.accci.com.au/keycity/keycity.htm.

“Autonomous Regions of China” from Wikipedia.  This is very brief and contains no references for source material, but it is a useful starting point for those whose knowledge of China’s autonomous regions is limited.  Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_regions_of_china.


Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, “China’s Ethnic Policy and Common Prosperity and Development of All Ethnic Groups”, 27 September 2009.  Available at: http://www.china.org.cn/government/whitepaper/node_7078073.htm.



China’s Autonomous Regions (in order as given below):


Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region – 新疆維吾爾自治區

Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region   內蒙古自治

Tibet Autonomous Region 西藏自治區

Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region 寧夏回族自治區

Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 廣西壯族自治區


Dai People's Autonomous Prefecture (Yunnan Province)


Comments are invited on anything contained in the listed documents and suggestions for additional linked documents are encouraged.


Email to: Policy@accci.com.au



Xinjiang Uyghur


Monitoring Economic, Political, Cultural and Environmental Developments in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region


Last updated:  16 April 2015


General Background


From Wikipedia


Ian Johnson, “China: What the Uyghurs See,” The New York Review of Books, 13 April 2015.  Available at: http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2015/apr/13/wild-pigeon-what-uighurs-see/.  This is a review of Carolyn Drake’s book, Wild Pigeon.


“Uyghur People”.  This outlines the history of the Uyghur people, including the Uyghur Empire (744-840 CE).  Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uyghur_people.


“East Turkestan Independence Movement”.  This is a broad term referring to those who advocate an independent, self-governing East Turkestan.  Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Turkestan_independence_movement.


“East Turkestan Islamic Movement”.  Background to one of the more militant organisations that advocate the creation of an independent Islamic State of East Turkestan.  Available at:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Turkestan_Islamic_Movement.


From Chinese Sources


Cui Jia and Zhu Zhe, “Xinjiang Support Package Unveiled”, China Daily, 12 May 2010.  Outlines recent policy developments in Beijing that offer support for the development of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Available at: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2010-05/21/content_9874981.htm.


“Illuminating China’s Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions: Inner Mongolia”. undated.  Available at: http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/43608.htm.


China Information Gateway, “Introduction to Xiangjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region”.  Undated.  Available at:



From US Council on Foreign Relations


Preeti Bhattacharji, “Uyghurs and China’s Xinjiang Region”, updated 6 July 2009.  Available at: http://www.cfr.org/publication/16870/uighurs_and_chinas_xinjiang_region.html.


Preeti Bhattacharji, “Religion in China”, dated 16 May, 2008.  Includes a brief coverage of the atheist CCP, Christian House Churches, Islam and Uyghurs in Xinjiang, Tibetan Buddhists and Falun Gong.  Available at:



Holly Fletcher and Jayshree Bajoria, “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM)”, updated 31 July 2009.  Available at http://www.cfr.org/publication/9179/east_turkestan_islamic_movement_etim.html.


From Other Sources


Edward Wong, “China Invests in Region Rich in Oil, Coal and Also Strife,” The New York Times, 20 December 2014.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/21/world/asia/china-invests-in-xinjiang-region-rich-in-oil-coal-and-also-strife.html. “China is investing more than ever in the vast, resource-rich Xinjiang region with the aim of bolstering oil extraction and refining, coal production, power generation, and natural gas production and transport.  That is happening despite soaring ethnic violence.


Radio Free Asia, “Xinjiang Raids Point to Religious Controls”, Eurasia Review, 10 March 2012.  Available at: http://www.eurasiareview.com/10032013-xinjiang-raids-point-to-religious-controls/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+eurasiareview%2FVsnE+%28Eurasia+Review%29.  Raids on Muslim Uyghur homes for religious materials are raising concerns about a general crackdown on religion in China’s restive northwestern Xinjiang region.


Radio Free Asia, “China: Uyghurs Held After House Searches”, Eurasia Review, 28 December 2011.  The article reports on security checks on citizens of China’s troubled north-western Xinjiang region as at least five ethnic minority Uyghurs were detained for possession of material deemed subversive to Beijing.  Available at: http://www.eurasiareview.com/28122011-china-uyghurs-held-after-house-searches/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+eurasiareview%2FVsnE+%28Eurasia+Review%29.


S. Frederick Starr, ed., Xinjiang: China’s Muslim Border, M.E. Sharpe, Inc (New York).  The book is comprehensive in its historical treatment (both political and cultural) of the Xinjiang region.  A preview is available at:  http://books.google.com.au/books?id=tfWq65DlGxkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=xinjiang&source=bl&ots=8TQa63A1wI&sig=l3d13QYD-SIFAFip1KvvlgD7cVw&hl=en&ei=1qlpTOLZJ4KeuAOJ74D-Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=13&ved=0CEsQ6AEwDA#v=onepage&q&f=false.


Graham E. Fuller and S. Frederick Starr, The Xinjiang Problem, Central Asia-Caucasus Institute, The Johns Hopkins University (undated).  This is a follow-up book to Xinjiang: China’s Muslim Border and provides geopolitical implications as well as policy recommendations that emerged from the group of scholars who participated in the first book.  Available at: www.silkroadstudies.org/docs/publications/OLD/xinjiang_final.pdf.


More on East Turkestan Independence Movement


David D. Wang, “East Turkestan Movement in Xinjiang”, Journal of Chinese Political Science, Vol. 4, No. 1 (June 1998).  Available from: http://www.springerlink.com/content/ch1k1777r1h74758, but note that, except for subscribers to the journal, a fee is charged for downloading.


Seva Gunitskiy, “In the Spotlight: East Turkestan Islamic Movement”, dated 9 December 2002, US Centre for Defence Information.  Available at: http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/etim.cfm.


Opinions and Analyses


Cultural Issues

Nicholas Bequelin, “The Price of China’s Uyghur Repression,” The New York Times, 25 September 2014.   The author expresses the opinion that the jailing of Ilham Tohti will radicalise more Uyghurs.  Available at:  http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/26/opinion/nicholas-bequelin-china-jailing-of-ilham-tohti-will-radicalize-more-uighurs.html. 

Tania Branigan, “Chinese Authorities Tighten Security in Xinjiang Region after Surge in Violence,” The Guardian, 90 July 2014.  Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/30/chinese-tighten-security-xinjiang-violence-uighur-muslim-minority.


Yufan Hao and Weihua Liu, “Xinjiang: Increasing Pain in the Heart of China’s Borderland”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 21, No. 74 (February 2012), pp 205-225.  The authors argue that the Xinjiang issue involves China's core interests and will require increasing attention as it comprises a serious challenge to the Beijing authorities.  Available for purchase at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10670564.2012.635927.


Radio Free Asia, “Uyghur Conference Sparks Japan-China Row”, Eurasia Review, 20 May 2012.  The article describes Japanese parliamentarians calling on Beijing not to interfere with how Japan treats China’s ethnic minority Uyghurs, following the close of an exile Uyghur group’s biennial meeting in Tokyo.  Available at: http://www.eurasiareview.com/20052012-uyghur-conference-sparks-japan-china-row/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+eurasiareview%2FVsnE+%28Eurasia+Review%29.


*Associated Press, “12 Dead in Xinjiang Clash: China Says Civilians Targeted, Uyghurs Say Violence Aimed at Police”, The Washington Post, 29 February 2012.  Available at:



*Gianna Gayle Amul, “Xinjiang: Defusing Tensions Through Development – Analysis”, Eurasian Review , 27 February 2012.  The author suggests that China needs to balance its policy of dealng with extremism with a stronger push for economic development in the country’s Western region.  Available at: http://www.eurasiareview.com/27022012-xinjiang-defusing-tensions-through-development-analysis/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+eurasiareview%2FVsnE+%28Eurasia+R.


Justin V. Hastings, “Charting the Course of Uyghur Unrest”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 208 (December 2011), pp, 893-912.  The author suggests that the locations and types of violent incidents were influenced by a combination of Chinese government policies and the political geography of Xinjiang, indicating that Uyghur rebels may have a difficult time mounting a large-scale violent campaign as long as China retains even minimal control of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.  Downloads are available for subscribers or for purchase of single issue at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8473602.


James Tong, “The Xinjiang Problem (I): Stabilisation and Rectification Policies, 1996-98: Editor’s Introduction”, Chinese Law and Government, Vol. 43, No. 1 (January-February 2010), pp. 3-8.  Plus

James Tong, “The Xinjiang Problem (II): Violent Disturbances and Religious Policy, 1995-98: Editor’s Introduction”, Chinese Law and Government, Vol. 43, No. 2 (March-April 2010), pp. 3-9.  These two short articles summarise information obtained from several documents and speeches by top Xinjiang Party and government officials at that time.  Available for purchase at: http://mesharpe.metapress.com/app/home/issue.asp?referrer=parent&backto=journal,4,38;linkingpublicationresults,1:110903,1 and at:



Lin Yi, “Ethnicisation through Schooling: The Mainstream Discursive Repertoires of Ethnic Minorities”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 192 (December 2007), pp. 933-948.  The author examines the rationale for cultural transformation, particularly through education, in China.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayIssue?iid=1587448.


Nimrod Baranovitch, “Inverted Exile: Uyghur Writers and Artists in Beijing and the Political Implications of Their Work”, Modern China, Vol. 33, No. 4 (October 2007), pp. 462-504.  The article examines both political and sociological aspects of outward migration of Uyghurs from Xinjiang.  Download is free (currently) at: http://mcx.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/33/4/462.


China’s Modern Security Challenges


Xinhua, “China Focus:  Legislators, Advisors Urge US to Abandon Terrorism Double Standard,” People’s Daily, 3 March 2014.  Available at: http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90883/8552766.html.


Michael Clarke, “Beijing Redoubles Counter-Terrorism Efforts in Xinjiang.” East Asia Forum, 26 February 2014.  Available at: http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2014/02/26/beijing-redoubles-counter-terrorism-efforts-in-xinjiang/.


Marc Lanteigne, Chinese Foreign Policy: An Introduction, Routledge.  Publication date: 12 February 2009.  Chapter 5 is devoted to strategic thinking and the roles of the Military.  More information on the book is available at: http://www.routledge.com/books/Chinese-Foreign-Policy-isbn9780415465243.


Border Protection in China’s Northwest Region


Mildred Cable, et al, The Challenge of Central Asia: A Brief Survey of Tibet and its Borderlands, Mongolia, North-West Kansu, Chinese Turkistan and Russian Central Asia, published in 1929 by World Dominion Press and is available for reading online through the University of Chicago Libraries at: http://www.archive.org/stream/MN41986ucmf_3#page/n11/mode/2up.


Andrew Scheieson, “The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation” (composed of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan), updated 24 March 2009.  Available at http://www.cfr.org/publication/10883/shanghai_cooperation_organization.html.


Human Rights Watch


Uyghurs’ Plight Discussed During the 13th Session of the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva”, 19 March 2010.  Available at: http://www.uhrp.org/articles/3661/1/Uyghurs-Plight-Discussed-During-the-13th-Session-of-the-UN-Human-Rights-Council-in-Geneva/index.html.


“China: Account for Uyghur Refugees Forcibly Repatriated to China”, 28 January 2010.  Available at:



Joshua Kurlantzick, “Broken Promises: Bush’s Shameful Record on Combating Human Rights Abuses in China”, dated 12 May 2008.  Available from The New Republic at: http://www.tnr.com/article/politics/broken-promises:


“China: Gross Violations of Human Rights in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region”, dated 31 March 1999, an Amnesty International Report.  Available at: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA17/018/1999.


“China: Human Rights Concerns in Xinjiang”, dated October 2001, a Human Rights Watch Backgrounder.  Available from http://www.hrw.org/legacy/backgrounder/asia/china-bck1017.htm.


“Xinjiang Separatism and Human Rights”, dated 2008 by Facts and Details (Jeffrey Hays).  Available at http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=163&catid=5&subcatid=89.


Greg Sheridan, “Uyghurs Must Fight for Rights Within China”, dated 13 August 2009 from The Australian.  Available at: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/opinion/uighurs-must-fight-for-rights-within-china/story-e6frg76f-1225760782546.


The Riots in 2009, and Continuing


Philip Wen and Sanghee Liu, “’They Should Be Chopped into Minced Meat:’” Fury in Xinjiang as Terror Toll Rises, The Sydney Morning Herald, 23 May 2014.  Available at: http://www.smh.com.au/world/they-should-be-chopped-into-minced-meat-fury-in-xinjiang-as-terror-toll-rises-20140523-zrmjt.html.  See also, Andrew Jacobs, “In China’s Far West, A City Struggles to Move On, The Sydney Morning Herald, 23 May 2014.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/24/world/asia/residents-try-to-move-on-after-terrorist-attack-in-china.html?hp.


Edward Wong, “Chinese Governor Signals Crackdown on Separatists,” The New York Times, 6 March 2014.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/07/world/asia/chinese-governor-signals-crackdown-on-separatists.html?action=click&contentCollection=Europe&region=Footer&module=Recommendation&src=recg&pgtype=article.


Chris Buckley, “Violence in Restive Chinese Region Prompts Crackdown,” The New York Times, 29 June 2013. “The Chinese government’s worries about Xinjiang deepened after a riot by Uyghurs on Wednesday in Turpan Prefecture left 35 people dead, according to state news media. Rioters killed 24 people, and police officers fatally shot 11 rioters, the reports said. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/30/world/asia/china-orders-security-crackdown-after-riots-in-restive-region.html?hp


No author cited, “Let Them Shoot Hoops”, The Economist, 12 August 2011.  The article suggests that China’s turbulent west is unlikely to be calmed by plans for economic development Available at: http://www.economist.com/node/21524940.


*Keith B. Richburg, “Blast in Western Chinese City Kills Seven”, The Washington Post, 19 August.  An assailant riding a three-wheeled vehicle attacked a contingent of security volunteers in Aksu city in China’s western region of Xinjiang, killing seven people and wounding 14 others in the first such incident since ethnic rioting shook the area a year ago.  Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/08/19/AR2010081901996.html?wpisrc=nl_pmheadline.


Translation from Xin Yu (in Mandarin) and Hai Na (in Cantonese), “Xinjiang Online, Controls Remain”, Radio Free Asia, 19 May 2010.  This and the following two links provide an update to the riots in 2009.  Available at: http://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/internet-05192010113601.html.


Tania Branigan,” A Year on from Xinjiang Riots, Ethnic Divisions Are ‘Greater Than Ever’”, The Guardian, 5 July 2010.  Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jul/05/xinjiang-china-riots-one-year-on.  Other related articles from The Guardian are listed at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/xinjiang.


Marianne Barriaux, “China Deploys Troops for Xinjiang Riot Anniversary”, The Sydney Morning Herald, 5 July 2010.  Available at: http://news.smh.com.au/breaking-news-world/china-deploys-troops-for-xinjiang-riot-anniversary-20100705-zxqo.html


Martin I. Wayne, “Inside China’s War on Terrorism”, Journal of Contemporary China, Volume 18, Issue 59 (March 2009), pp. 249-261.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~db=all~content=g908174333.


“Eyewitness Accounts of Xinjiang Riots”, updated 7 July 2009, China Daily.  Available at: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2009-07/07/content_8384840.htm.


Christina Larson, “How China Wins and Loses Xinjiang”, dated 9 July 2009.  Christina writes that although China’s Crackdown in Xinjiang province was effective in quelling the restless Uyghur population, the tactics seem more likely to foster resistance and resentment than peace and passivity.  Available at: http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2009/07/09/how_china_wins_and_loses_xinjiang?page=0,0.


Josh Chin, “Global Post: Confused about the Xinjiang Riots?  Follow the Money”, dated 12 July 2009.  The author argues that the unrest in China’s Xinjiang province is less about Islam and more about economics.  Available at: http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/china-and-its-neighbors/090711/confused-about-the-xinjiang-riots-follow-the-money?page=0,0.


James Leibold, “The Xinjiang Riots: Tired Paradigms, Fresh Tensions”, 14 July 2009 from the China Beat.  The author is a Senior Lecturer in Politics and Asian Studies at La Trobe University and author of Reconfiguring Chinese Nationalism, Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.  The blog in China Beat gives a well-balanced assessment of the riots and is generally critical of media coverage of the event.  Available at: http://thechinabeat.blogspot.com/2009/07/xinjiang-riots-tried-paradigms-fresh.html.


Tania Branigan, “Hundreds Face Trial Over Deadly Xinjiang Riots”, 24 August 2009 from The Guardian. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/aug/24/china-trials-xinjiang-riots.


Sreeram Chaulia, “Xinjiang Riots Confound Islamists”, dated 29 July from Asia Times Onlne.  Available at http://www.atimes.com.


Development Progress in Xinjiang


Keith B. Richburg, “China’s Push to Develop Its West Hasn’t Closed Income Gap with East, Critics Say”, Washington Post, 29 June 2010.  The article includes information on recent development projects in China’s western provinces, especially mining activities.  Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/06/28/AR2010062804979.html


Sascha Klotzbücher, Peter Lässig, Qin Jiangmei and Suxanne Weigelin-Schwiedrzik, “What is the New in the ‘New Rural Co-operative Medical System”? An Assessment in One Kazak County in the Xinging Uyghur Autonomous Region”, The China Quarterly, Vol. 201 (2010), pp 38-57. This article addresses the main characteristics of this system, analyses the introduction of local schemes based on field studies in one Kazak county of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region since 2006, and concludes that local initiatives account for much of the progress of the scheme.  Downloads may be purchased at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=7398236&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0305741009991068.  


“White Paper on Development and Progress in Xinjiang”, dated 21 September 2009 from People’s Daily.  Available at:  http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/ethnic/2009-09/21/content_8717461_3.htm.


Mike Dillon, Contemporary China – An Introduction, Routledge 2008.  Chapter 18 is devoted to Xinjiang.  Also included is “Western Development Program” (Chapter 21), “China and the World 1: “Strategic Relationships” (Chapter 22); “China and the World 2: New Neighbours to the West” (Chapter 23); “China and a Harmonious Society’?  The book is available in some libraries in electronic form.


Hugo Burgh, China: Friend of Foe? Icon Books (Cambridge), 2006.  Chapter 8 is devoted to Tibet and East Turkestan.  This book may be available from some libraries in electronic form.


Inner Mongolia


Monitoring Economic, Political, Cultural and Environmental Developments in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

Last updated:  8 June 2013


General Background


From Wikipedia


“Inner Mongolia”.  This is particularly useful for the historical development and a brief statement of current conditions.  Available at:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inner_Mongolia.


“Mongolia”.  The early history and the consolidation of the Mongol State are given in greater detail in this section.  Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Mongolia.


From Chinese Sources


“Illuminating China’s Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions: Inner Mongolia”. Undated.  Available at: http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/45690.htm.


“Doing Business in Inner Mongolia”, (undated) from China Ministry of Commerce.  Available at: http://english.mofcom.gov.cn/aroundchina/neimenggu.shtml.


China Information Gateway “An Introduction to Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region”.  Undated. Available at:



Opinions and Analyses


Bhaskar Roy, “Chinese Communist Party Vs Tibetan Civilization – Analysis”, Eurasian Review, 10 November 2011.  The author suggests it is time that the CCP viewed the Tibetan issue from a globalized perspective than the Maoist view of the Cultural Revolution. Available at: http://www.eurasiareview.com/10112011-chinese-communist-party-vs-tibetan-civilization-analysis/


Andrew Jacobs, “Ethnic Protests in China Have Lengthy Roots’, The New York Times, 10 June 2011.  The articles contains information relating to the recent ethnic protects in Inner Mongolia.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/11/world/asia/11mongolia.html?amp.


Jonathan Watts, “Herder’s Death Deepens Tensions in Inner Mongolia”, The Guardian, 27 May 2011.  Protests erupt after Mongolian herder was run over by a coal truck as he tried to stop a mining convoy driving across prairie land.  Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/may/27/tensions-herders-miners-inner-mongolia?INTCMP=SRCH.  A follow-up article by the same author is entitled: “Inner Mongolia Protests Prompt Crackdown”, The Guardian, 30 May 2011.  The CCP chief in Inner Mongolia orders censorship of information and a clampdown on visitors.  Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/may/30/mongolia-protests-communist-party-crackdown?INTCMP=SRCH.


Tania Branigan, “China Loses Thousands of Historic Sites”, The Guardian, 14 December 2009.  Agaggressive development in China, including illegal mining in Inner Mongolia, has destroyed tens of thousands of historic sites in the last three decades, as determined from a national survey.  Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/dec/14/china-historic-sites-survey.


David Sneath, Changing Inner Mongolia: Pastoral Mongolian Society and the Chinese State, Oxford Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology, 2000.  Information about the book can be obtained from online booksellers.


Border Protection for Inner Mongolia


Mildred Cable, et al, “The Challenge of Central Asia: A Brief Survey of Tibet and its Borderlands, Mongolia, North-west Kansu, Chinese Turkistan and Russian Central Asia, published in 1929 by World Dominion Press and is available for reading online through the University of Chicago Libraries at: http://www.archive.org/stream/MN41986ucmf_3#page/n11/mode/2up.


Inner Mongolia’s Abundant Resources


Michael Forsythe, “Planning to Manage Riches Wisely”, The New York Times, 16 February 2010.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/17/world/asia/17iht-letter.html.


United Nation Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), “Inner Mongolia”.  This includes a brief description of Inner Mongolia’s natural resources.  Available at:



Fred Bernstein, “In Inner Mongolia, Pushing Architecture to Its Outer Limits”, dated 1 May 2008 from the New York Times.  The article indicates that the resource rich desert region of China did not feel the effects of the global financial meltdown that affected other parts of the world.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/01/garden/01mongolia.html.


“The Hunt for Rare Earths”, dated 8 October 2009, from The Economist.  Available at: http://www.economist.com/businessfinance/displaystory.cfm?story_id=14587710.


Environmental Issues


Bruce Marcot (both text and photos), “Human and Ecological Communities of Inner Mongolia, China:  A System of Stress”, undated but later than 2002.  Available at: http://www.aracnet.com/~brucem/imar1.htm.


Asian Development Bank, “Resettlement Planning Document – People’s Republic of China: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Improvement Project”, dated March 2006.  Available at: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Resettlement_Plans/PRC/39019-PRC-RP.pdf.


Human Rights Watch


Internet site of the Inner Mongolia People’s Party:  http://www.innermongolia.org/english/index.html.


Development and Progress in Inner Mongolia


Asian Development Bank Technical Assistance Consultant’s Report, ”Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Trade Facilitation and Logistics Development Strategy”, dated September 2006 and available at: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Reports/Consultant/36027-REG/36027-08-REG-TACR.pdf.


“Province Introduction of China: Inner Mongolia”, dated 1 April, 2009, includes recent economic and commercial statistics.  Available: http://news.alibaba.com/article/detail/business-in-china/100084489-1-province-introduction-china%253A-inner-mongolia.html.






Monitoring Economic, Political, Cultural and Environmental Developments in

Tibet Autonomous Region

Last updated:  15 July 2-15


General Background


From Wikipedia


“Tibet Autonomous Region”.  This includes a brief history together with some demographic information and economic data.  Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibet_Autonomous_Region.


From Chinese Sources


“Illuminating China’s Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions: Tibet”.  Undated.  Available at:  http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/43606.htm.


China Information Gateway, “Introduction to Tibet Autonomous Region”.  Undated.  Available at:



From Recent Books


John Gittings, “The Struggle for Tibet by Wang LixiongTsering Shakya and The End of the Revolution: China and the Limits of Modernity by Wang Hui”.  The is a commentary on two new books that articulate China’s internal debate. The Guardian, 3 April 2010.  Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2010/apr/03/struggle-tibet-wang-lixiong-china.


Cultural Issues


No author cited, “A New Way Forward,” The Economist 22 June 2012.  Available at: http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21579845-proposals-different-approach-tibet-suggest-some-china-know-their-policies-are-not.  See also Lan Fang, “Aid Programs in Tibet Lack Efficiency, Says Scholar”, Caixin Online, 18 December 2012.  Available at: http://english.caixin.com/2012-12-18/100473750.html.


Tania Branigan, “Tibetan Activists Launch Boycott of InterContinental Over Hotel Plans”, The Guardian, 24 May 2013.  Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/may/23/tibet-activists-boycott-intercontinental-hotel-plan.


BC, “Buddhism and Self-Immolation: The Theology of Self-Destruction”, The Economist, 22 March 2013.  Available at: http://www.economist.com/blogs/erasmus/2013/03/buddhism-and-self-immolation?fsrc=nlw|newe|3-25-2013|5375260|34237756|.


Nick Cumming-Bruce, “UN Rights Official Faults China on Tibetan Suppression”, The New York Times, 2 November 2012.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/03/world/asia/un-rights-official-faults-china-on-tibetan-suppression.html.


Parameswaran Ponnudurai, “China – Tibet: Net Turning Point for Burnings – Analysis”, Eurasia Review, 30 October 2012.  Available at:  http://www.eurasiareview.com/30102012-china-tibet-new-turning-point-for-burnings-analysis/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+eurasiareview%2FVsnE+%28Eurasia+Review%29.


Mandip Singh, “The Turnaround in China’s Tibet Policy: Will Tourism Boost Benefit Tibetans? – Analysis”, Eurasia Review, 20 July 2012.  Available at: http://www.eurasiareview.com/20072012-the-turnaround-in-chinas-tibet-policy-will-tourism-boost-benefit-tibetans-analysis/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+eurasiareview%2FVsnE+%28Eurasia+Review%29.


Robert D Sloane, “Tibet, Cynical Sinicism and the Tragedy of Seof-Immolations”, East Asia Forum, 9 May 2012.  Available at: http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2012/05/09/tibet-cynical-sinicism-and-the-tragedy-of-self-immolations/


Simon Denyer, “Self-Immolations Reflect Rising Tibetan Anger”, The Washington Post, 2 April 2012.  Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/self-immolations-reflect-rising-tibetan-anger/2012/04/01/gIQA2szapS_story.html?wpisrc=nl_headlines.


Radio Free Asia, “China: Defiant Tibetans Hold Protests”, Eurasia Review, 9 February 2012.  Available at: http://www.eurasiareview.com/09022012-china-defiant-tibetans-hold-protests/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+eurasiareview%2FVsnE+%28Eurasia+Review%29.


Banyan, “China’s Tibetan Problem: More Turbulent Monks”, The Economist, 24 April 2011.  Available at: http://www.economist.com/blogs/banyan/2011/04/chinas_tibetan_problem.


John Garnaut, “Religious Ties that Bind in Tibet”, The Age, 3 July 2010.  The writer recounts selected aspects of the political-religious conflict that became apparent in the early 1990s.  Available at: http://www.theage.com.au/world/religious-ties-that-bind-in-tibet-20100702-zu3q.html.


State Council Information Office, “White Paper on Tibetan Culture”, 22 June (year not given).  Available at: http://english.people.com.cn/features/tibetpaper/tibet.html.


Reza Hasmath and Jennifer Hsu, “Social Development in Tibet Autonomous Region: A Contemporary and Historical Analysis”, International Journal of Development Issues, Vol. 6, Issue 2 (2007), pp. 125-141.  Available for free download (this may be subject to change in the future) at:



Xiaofei Kang, “Two Temples, Three Religions and a Tourist Attraction”, Modern China, Vol. 35, No. 3 (May 2009).  The article examines the interaction between China’s religious revival and the development of tourism.  Short-term download is available for purchase at: http://mcx.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/35/3/227.


Environmental Issues


Zou Xue-Yong, Li Sen, Zhang Chun-Lai, Dong Guang-Rong, Dong Yu-Xiang and Yan-ping, “Desertification and Control Plan in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China”, Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 51, Issue 2 (June 2002), pp. 183-198.  Purchase download through: http://www.sciencedirect.com.


State Council Information Office, “White Paper on Ecological Improvement and Environmental Protection in Tibet”, 10 March (year not given).  Available at: http://english.people.com.cn/whitepaper/tbpaper/tb.html.


Tony Banks, Camille Richard, Li Ping and Yan Zhaoli, “Community-Based Grassland Management in Western China, Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 23, No. 2 (May 2003), pp. 132-140.  Available from the World Bank at: http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/54262/


Human Rights Watch


Human Rights Watch, “I Saw It With My Own Eyes”, 21 July 2010.  This is a 73-page report based on more than 200 interviews with Tibetan refugees and visitors conducted immediately after they left China and also includes official Chinese sources not previously reported.  Available at: http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/07/22/i-saw-it-my-own-eyes-0.


Malcolm Moore, “We Must Prioritise Human Rights in China”, The Telegraph, 9 August 2010.  Moore suggests that by concentrating on trade, Britain is exposing the shallowness of its principles.  Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/china/7934093/We-must-prioritise-human-rights-in-China.html.


“People’s Republic of China – Tibet Autonomous Region:  A Year of Escalating Human Rights Violations”, Amnesty International Report, 6 March 2009.  Available at: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA17/011/2009/en.


Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy, Annual Reports.  The centre is located in India and reports from 1996 to 2008 are available online at:  http://www.tchrd.org/publications/annual_reports/.


News Watch


China Tibet Information Centre published a wide range of new items about Tibet and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.  Available at: http://eng.tibet.cn/.


An Indian community organisation in Thailand collects news items about Tibet.  It is available at: http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/tag/tibet-autonomous-region.


Border Protection for Tibet


Greg Bruno, “America’s Obligations to Tibet”, The Guardian, 3 August 2010.  The author states that US must not turn a blind eye to Chinese pressure on Nepal to close its borders to fleeing Tibetan dissidents.  Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2010/aug/13/tibet-nepal-tibet-refugees.


Mildred Cable, et al, “The Challenge of Central Asia: A Brief Survey of Tibet and its Borderlands, Mongolia, North-west Kansu, Chinese Turkistan and Russian Central Asia, published in 1929 by World Dominion Press and is available for reading online through the University of Chicago Libraries at: http://www.archive.org/stream/MN41986ucmf_3#page/n11/mode/2up.


Development and Progress in Tibet


Andrew M Fisher, “Tibet’s Economic Growth an Accounting Illusion?” East Asia Forum, 9 July 2015.  Available a: http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2015/07/09/tibets-economic-growth-an-accounting-illusion/


Melvyn C. Goldstein, Geoff Childs and Puchung Wangdui, “Beijing’s ‘People First’ Development Initiative for the Tibet Autonomous Region’s Rural Sector – A Case Study from the Shigatse Area” The China Journal, Issue 63 (January 2010). Pp. 57-68.  The authors examine the current strategy of the PRV that is aimed at fostering greater loyaly among rural Tibetans by convincing them that being part of the People’s Republic of China is beneficial to their short-term and long-germ material well-being.  Information about the journal is available at: http://rspas.anu.edu.au/ccc/home.htm.


Xiaojiang Hu, Miguel A Salazar, The China Journal, “Ethnicity, Rurality and Status: Hukou and the Institutional and Cultural Determinants of Social Status in Tibet”, No. 60 (July 2008), pp. 1-22.  The authors examine the relation between ethnicity and urban-rural status in order to achieve a better understanding of social stratification and social tensions in the western regions of China.  Information about the journal is available at: http://rspas.anu.edu.au/ccc/home.htm.


International Campaign For Tibet, “Request for Inspection: China Western Poverty Reduction Project” (of the World Bank), 18 June 1999.  Available from the World Bank at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/ChinaRequest.pdf.


China National Bureau of Statistics, “Statistical Communiqué of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China on the 2007 Regional Economic and Social Developments”, updated 11 June 2008.  Available from Beijing Review at http://www.bjreview.com.cn/document/txt/2008-06/11/content_126797.htm


Mike Dillon, Contemporary China – An Introduction, Routledge, 2008.  Chapter 19 is devoted to Tibet.  Also included is “Western Development Program” (Chapter 21), “China and the World 1: “Strategic Relationships” (Chapter 22); “China and the World 2: New Neighbours to the West” (Chapter 23); “China and a Harmonious Society’?  This book may be available in some libraries in electronic form.


Hugo Burgh, China: Friend of Foe? Icon Books (Cambridge), 2006.  Chapter 8 is devoted to Tibet and East Turkestan.  This book may be available from some libraries in electronic form.


Other Issues


Editorial, “The Challenge of China”, The New York Times, 10 February 2010.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/11/opinion/11thu1.html.


Barry Sautman, “Tibet’s Putative Statehood and International Law”, Chinese Journal of International Law, Vol. 9, No. 1 (March 2010), pp. 127-142.  The author examined the claim that Tibet was independent during the Qing Dynasty or had de facto independence and concluded that the claim is not supported by fact and law.  Downloads may be purchased at:  http://chinesejil.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/9/1/127l.




Ningxia Hui


Monitoring Economic, Political, Cultural and Environmental Developments in
Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

Last updated:  17 August 2010


General Background

From Wikipedia:


“Ningxia”. This is relative brief, but nevertheless gives a good overview of the history of Ningxia.  It is available at:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ningxia. 


From Chinese Sources


“Illuminating China’s Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions: Ningxia”.  Undated.  Available at: 



China Information Gateway, “Introduction to Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region”.  Undated.  Available at:http://www.china-guide.de/english/a_profile__of_china/ningxia_hui/index.html.


Opinions and Analyses


Cultural Issues


Edward Wong, “Violent Clashes Reported in China Over Mosque Demolition”, The New York Times, 3 January 2012.   The clash took place when villagers near the town of Hexi surrounded a mosque to try to prevent officials from razing it.  Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/04/world/asia/violent-clashes-reported-in-china-over-mosque-demolition.html?nl=todaysheadlines&emc=tha23


“Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region” Undated from China Culture.  Available at:



Environmental Issues


“Ecological Refugees Flee China’s Expanding Desert”, dated 20 April 2009 from World Focus.  The article indicates the human consequences of excessive water usage and grazing as millions of fertile farmland in the region is becoming desert.  Available at: http://worldfocus.org/blog/2009/04/20/china-environmental-refugees/5048/.


Asian Development Bank, “People’s Republic of China: Capacity Building for Integrated Ecosystem Management in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region”, Technical Assistance Report, December 2007.  The aim of the project is to improve environmental management for ecosystem rehabilitation in support of sustainable rural incomes in the project area.  Available at: http://www.adb.org/Documents/TARs/PRC/41676-PRC-TAR.pdf.


Human Rights Watch


Hua Hua Human Rights Journal, 6 October 2009, mentioned Ningxia in relation to the broader issue of clemency for prisoners in China.  Available at:  http://www.duihua.org/hrjournal/hrjournal.htm.


Development and Progress in Ningxia


Joel McCormick, “A Breakfast Solution: How to Life Millions of China’s Rural Poor Out of Destitution?” Stanford Magazine, March/April 2010.  Available at: http://www.stanfordalumni.org/news/magazine/2010/marapr/features/reap.html.


Highbeam Research list 10 or so news items about Ningxia from periodicals such as Mining Journal, Chemical Journal and Wireless Weekly.  This is available through Infoplease at: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A0835712.html


“Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region”, dated 2009 by the Macau Trade and Investment Promotion Institute.  It gives a list of projects “wanting foreign investment” and “favourable policies for foreign investment.  Available at: http://www.ipim.gov.mo/worldwide_partner_detail.php?mode=popup&tid=3921&extra=page%3D1&lang=en-us.


“Ningxia Hui Autonomour Region 50 Year On”.  Undated from Beijing Review.  Available at: http://www.bjreview.com.cn/special/node_20162.htm.


Shengquan Ma, Ruibo Han, Huhua Cao, “Empirical Analysis on the Level of Economic Development in Ningxia Hua Autonomous Region, Western China”, ICICIC, pp. 276, 2008 3rd International Conference on Innovative Computing Information and Control, 2008.  The paper examines income inequality within Ningxia.  Available for downloading for a fee (except for subscribers) at: http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10.1109/ICICIC.2008.248.


Richard Louis Edmonds, “Great Western Development in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region”, Provincial China, Vol. 8, Issue 2 (October 2005), pp. 144-163.  The article is sub-titled A Cultural Remake of a Cultural Remake?  Available at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a723924023


United Nations Development Program, “Projects in Ningxia”, dated 2005.  Most of the 7 on-going projects are continuing through to 2012.  List of projects and links for project summaries are available at: http://www.undp.org.cn/map.php?province=Ningxia.




Guangxi Zhuang


Monitoring Economic, Political, Cultural and Environmental Developments in
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

Last updated:  17 August 2010


General Background

From Wikipedia


“Guangxi”. This has relatively few references or external links, but the brief description of the autonomous region is nevertheless useful.  Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guangxi.


Zhuang People”.  Contains brief comments on the history and culture of the Zhuang people.  Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhuang_people.


From Chinese Sources


“Illuminating China’s Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions: Guangxi”.  Undated.  Available at: 



China Information Gateway, “Introduction to Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region”.  Undated.  Available at:



“Doing Business in Guangxi”, (undated) from China Ministry of Commerce.  Available at: http://english.mofcom.gov.cn/aroundchina/Guangxi.shtml



Opinions and Analyses


Cultural Issues


Jill Robinson and Douglas D. Perkins, “Social Development Needs Assessment in China: Lessons from an International collaborative Field School in guangzi Zhuang Autonomous Region”, China Journal of Social Work,Vol. 2, No. 1, (April 2009), pp. 34-51.  Downloads may be purchased at:



“Guangxi History”, updated 2 April, 2008 by China Travel.  A short commentary on the ancient culture of Guangxi is included.  Available at: http://www.chinatravel.com/guangxi/history.htm.


Katherine Palmer Kaup, Creating The Zhuang: Ethnic Politics in China, 2000.  Lynne Rienner is the publisher.  Sample pages are available from Google Books at: http://books.google.com.au/books.


Environmental Issues


Jonathan Watts, “Health Fears Over Chinese Villagers Clearing Up Toxic Rocket Debris", Guardian, 19 January 2010.  Questions are being asked about the environmental health impact of China's space programme amid allegations that thousands of villagers are being recruited to clear up booster rockets and other toxic debris.  Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/jan/19/health-fears-chinese-rocket-debris.


Asian Development Bank, “Guangxi Wuzhou Urban Development Project”, 2009.  The project incorporates geohazard prevention in developing the city of Wuzhou to further strengthen the economic integration of Guangxi and its neighbouring western provinces with the Pearl River Delta.   Available at: http://www.adb.org/projects/project.asp?id=40642.


Clean Development Mechanism and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, “Facilitating Reforestation for Guangxi Watershed”, project design document dated 21 July 2006.  Available at: http://cdm.unfccc.int/UserManagement/FileStorage/H5218OI0ZWU4CTWLPLKEIETBIODYED.


news Watch


“Guangxi”, updated regularly with mainly marketing data, but also indexes news articles of more general interest.  Available at: http://news.alibaba.com/article/list/1/guangxi.html.


Guangxi Province – News Headlines”, updated regularly, from the Chinese Outpost.  Available at: http://www.chinese-outpost.com/china-news/guangxi.asp.


Development and Progress in Guangxi


Jonathan Watts, “Chinese Workers Strike at Honda Lock Parts Supplier”, Guardian, 11 June 2010. The author suggests that era of cheap manufacturing in China may be coming to an end.  Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/jun/11/honda-china,


Guangxi Invests in Transportation”, dated 3 September 2009, from China Daily.  The article emphasises the importance of transport links in strengthening the trade relations between China and ASEAN.  Available at: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2009-09/03/content_8649463.htm.


United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Investment Promotion Programme Office for Southern China, “Guangxi”.  Undated.  The document gives a brief comment on the main industries in Guangxi.  Available at: http://www.ipa-china.org/en/Industrial_Background/2006/ipa-china244.shtml.




Monitoring Economic, Political, Cultural and Environmental Developments in
Dai People's Autonomous Prefecture (Yunnan Province)

Last updated:  17 January 2011


Cultural Issues


*Thomas Borchert, “The Abbot’s New House: Thinking about How Religion Works among Buddhists and Ethnic Minorities in Southwest China”, Journal of Church and State”, Vol. 52, No. 1 (June 2010), pp. 112-137.  The author uses recent experiences in Dai People’s Autonomous Prefecture to understand how religious actors in China work with, and not simply against, the state.  Available at: http://jcs.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2010/06/03/jcs.csq033.extract.



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