The Australia-China Chamber of Commerce and Industry
of New South Wales




Liaoning is shown in black.

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General Profile:

Population: 42,400,000

Regional Capital: Shenyang

Average temperatures: 17 deg C to -5 deg C in January; 21 deg C to 25 deg C in July.

Physical features: High elevations occur in the east and west; low plains are in the central and the southern coastal areas.  Liaodong Peninsula in the south stretches into the Bohai Sea.  Land area is 147,500 square kilometres.

Rivers: The Liao River is the principal waterway of the province.  The Yalu River forms the boundary between China and North Korea.

Administrative divisions: 19 cities and 34 counties and 5 autonomous counties.

Historical significance:  Liaoning first became part of China in the Han Dynasty (206 BC to 220 AD) and subsequently developed into China’s most urbanised and industrialised province.


Natural Resources:

Liaoning has rich mineral resources with substantial deposits of coal and iron ore.  The Liaohe Oilfield(遼河油田)is one of the largest in China.  Its output of crude oil ranks fourth in China, with 14.3 million metric tons produced in 1999.  Liaoning’s reserve of boron, magnetite, diamonds and jade are the largest in China.

Liaoning also possesses rich salt resources along its coastline, which also provides an excellent source of seafood.  Lüshun(旅大)is the most famous fishing port in China, supplying ocean fish and shellfish for the domestic markets and for exports. 


Economic Profile:





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Value added by sector





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Retail sales (RMB bn)





Inflation (CPI, %)





Exports (US$ bn)





  - by FIEs (US$ bn)





Imports (US$ bn)





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Foreign direct investment





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Notes: *Estimated
Statistical Yearbook of Liaoning and State Statistical Bureau.




Water Transport -- The province has five ports for international shipping: Dalian, Yingkou, Huludao(葫蘆島), Dandong and Jinzhou.  Dalian is the fourth largest container port in terms of cargo handling tonnage in China, with a throughput of 85.1 million tons in 1999.  Inland water transport is seasonally available along the Liao(遼河)and Yalu(鴨綠江)rivers.

A new port in Panjin(盤錦)was put into operation recently.  It is located at the Bohai Rim and it expects to handle commodities and oil products from the Liaohe Oilfield.

In the Tenth Five Year Plan, the Liaoning Provincial Government plans to improve the facilities of its major ports.  Two of the projects include the expansion of the Dalian port and Jinzhou port and investors are currently being sought.

Railways -- Liaoning has one of the most widely used railway networks in China.  Major trunk railways include Jingha Line(京哈線: Beijing-Harbin 北京-哈爾濱), Shenda Line(瀋大線: Shenyang-Dalian 瀋陽- 大連), Shenji Line(瀋吉線: Shenyang-Jilin 瀋陽-吉林), Shendan Line (瀋丹線:  Shenyang-Dandong 沈陽-丹東)and Hada line(哈大線: Harbin-Dalian 哈爾濱-大連).  Construction of QinShen line(秦瀋線: Qinhuangdao-Shenyang 秦皇島-瀋陽), which will link Hebei and Liaoning is now in progress.  The electrification of the Harbin-Dalian line, which is the first rail line in the northeast to be electrified, is almost completed.

A new railway network covering 2,200 kilometres from Harbin to Changxing(長興)in Zhejiang Province, is under construction.  The railway network will link the Hada line with a 170-kilometre-long ferry passage from Dalian to Yantai in Shandong.  It will further extend from Shandong to Zhejiang and on to Shanghai and Jiangsu.  When completed it will be a significant improvement in to the rail network serving Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces.

Roadways -- Major roadways in the province include the Shenyang-Dalian Highway that links Shenyang, Fushun, Benxi(本溪), Tieling(鐵嶺)and Huancheng(環城); Shen-Shan Expressway(瀋山高速公路)which links Shenyang with Shanhaiguan(山海關)in Hebei.  The Shenha Expressway(瀋哈高速公路)from Shenyang to Harbin was completed recently.

In the Tenth Five Year Plan, the Liaoning Provincial Government is planning to connect all 14 cities in the province with expressways. T he last four major expressways of this project: Dandong-Benxi Expressway(丹東-本溪高速公路), Panjin-Haicheng Expressway(盤錦-海城高速公路), Jinzhou-Zhaoyang(錦州-朝陽高速公路), and Jinzhou-Buxin(錦州-埠新高速公路)are under construction and will be completed by the end of 2002.

Air Transport -- Liaoning has two international airports - the Shenyang Taoxian International Airport(瀋陽桃仙機場)and the Dalian Zhoushuizi International Airport(大連周水子國際機場).  There are also four provincial airports in Dandong, Jinzhou, Zhaoyang(朝陽)and Changhai(長海).  Scheduled passenger services to Tokyo, Fukuoka, Seoul, Pyongyang, Moscow and Hong Kong, and chartered cargo flights to Japan, the US, Romania, Thailand, the Netherlands and Canada are available.

Telecommunications -- Telephone penetration rate is high in Liaoning.  In 2000 alone the province had 2.04 million new mobile phone users. Internet users also reached 780,000.

Electricity -- Liaoning has established one of the most developed electricity supply networks within the country and it also takes the major part of the electricity-supply network in northeast China.

Recently, a 500 KW electric cable from Suizhong(綏中)in Liaoning to Qianxi(遷西) in Tianjin is constructed.  This is the first cable that links the Northeastern China Electric Network with the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Electric Network.  It will provide extra capacity for the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area.



Provincial agricultural products include: corn, millet, sorghum, rice, wheat, potatoes, rice, soybeans, peanuts, rape, sesame, cotton, ambary hemp, silk, flax, tussah, apples, pears, grapes and ginseng.



Liaoning's industrial output totalled RMB 417.0 billion in 2000.  Major industries included iron and steel, petrochemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electronics, shipbuilding, building materials, papermaking and textiles.  Mechanical and electrical products are the province's main export products.

Liaoning is one of the most important heavy industry production bases in China, with Shenyang, Dalian and Fushun as the major industrial centres in the province.  Some enterprises such as Shenyang FAW-Jinbei Co. Ltd., Dalian Iceberg Group, Dalian Shipbuilding Plant, Dalian Rolling Stock Plant, Anshan Steel Group, Fushun Petrochemicals Co. and Benxi Steel (Group) Co. Ltd. take significant roles in their own sectors including electrical power, steel, automobiles, petrochemicals, aviation, shipbuilding and machinery. 

The province's light industry mainly focuses on the development of textiles and clothing industries which include cotton and wool spinning, chemical fibre, knitting, silk, garments and textile machinery. Dalian is a major fashion cente in China and The China Dalian International Garment Fair has been held annually to boost the industry.

Within the next few years, Liaoning will continue to restructure its large and medium-sized state-owned enterprises and will concentrate in developing its four pillar industries - petrochemicals, metallurgical, machinery and electronic sectors.  Industrial activities along the Bohai Sea will be integrated into a Bohai Economic Belt, making it one of the major development regions in China.

In 2000, Liaoning's external trade reached US$20.1 billion.  Provincial exports rose by 30.9 per cent to US$10.6 billion in that year.  Exports of manufactured goods included machinery and electronics. Other major exports included textiles, garments, silk, cement, soybeans, corn and seafood.  Major export markets were Japan, the USA, Republic of Korea, Hong Kong and Germany.  

Imports also increased by 46.2 per cent to US$9.5 billion in 2000.  Major import commodities included machinery, electronic equipment and components, fertilizers, raw materials and chemicals.  Major import sources were Japan, Republic of Korea, Hong Kong, Indonesia and the USA..


Science and Technology:

Liaoning has 5 state-level economic and technical development zones (ETDZs), one tourist holiday resort and one bonded zone, and 13 provincial-level ETDZs.  Overseas investments are encouraged to invest in electronics, machinery, food processing, garment processing, textile, transportation in these zones.  

Major zones include the following:

Dalian Economic and Technical Development Zone(大連經濟技術開發區).  This was the first ETDZ in China approved by the State Council in 1984 and it has developed a systematic industrial structure of electronics, machinery, textiles and light industry, building materials, petroleum, chemicals, and medical instruments.  

Shenyang Economic and Technical Development Zone(瀋陽經濟技術開發區, SETDZwas approved by the State Council in June 1988.  By the end of 1998, more than 900 firms from 36 countries and regions had launched businesses in the SETDZ with contracted investment of US$4.57 billion, of which, US$3.5 billion was foreign capital.  In addition to its existing core industries, which include chemicals, pharmaceuticals, automobiles and food processing, the SETDZ is expected to pursue development of bio-technological and environmental protection industries as well.

Yingkou Economic and Technical Development Zone(營口經濟技術開發區)was established in 1992 with the approval of the State Council. Investment projects with new- and hi-tech are welcome to invest in the zone. 

Dandong Border Economic Cooperation Zone(丹東邊境經濟合作區)was established in 1992 with the approval of the State Council.  It is designed to expand external trade and economic cooperation between the Korean Peninsula and Japan in the fields of trade, tourism, export processing, information consultancy, bonded warehousing and port transportation.


Consumers’ Market:

Liaoning's retail sales of consumer goods reached RMB184.8 billion in 2000, placing it fifth among all provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China.  Major consumer centres are located in Shenyang and Dalian.

In 1992, the State Council selected Dalian as one of the 11 designated pilot cities to establish one to two pilot Sino-overseas joint-venture retail enterprises with import-exports rights. The Dalian International Commercial Trade Shopping Arcade Co., a JV retail store between the Dalian Shopping Center(大連商場有限公司)and Japan's Nichii(尼齊宜)was approved by the State Council as one of the 18 pilot JV retail enterprises.  Dalian Friendship Group Corporation(大連友誼集團)and Wal-Mart from US(美國沃爾瑪公司)also formed a JV retail enterprise, Wal-Mart Dalian Supercentre, has been opened recently.  Covering 20,000 square metres, the new Supercentre is the seventh store that Wal-Mart invested in China.

Major department stores and shopping centers in Liaoning include Zhongxing-Shenyang Commercial Building(中興瀋陽商業大廈)and Zhongxin-Dalian Commercial Building(中興大連商業大廈).  Other major department stores include Maikaile Dalain Shopping Arcade(邁凱樂大連商場),  Tianhe Baisheng Shopping Centre(天河百盛購物中心), Sincere Qiulin Building(先施秋林大廈), Shenyang Department Store(瀋陽百貨公司), Dalian  Shopping Center Shareholdings Co.(大連商場股份有限公司), Jingzhou Zhongbai Shopping Arcade Holdings Co.(錦州中百商廈集團公司), Anshan No.1 Department Store Co.(鞍山一百股份有限公司), and Fushun Department Store(撫順百貨公司).


Key Cities in Liaoning Province:

Central plains industrial zone – this includes:

Ø       Shenyang

Ø       Anshan

Ø       Fushun

Coastal industrial zone  -- or the Bohai Economic Belt includes:

Ø       Dalian

Ø       Jinzhou

Ø       Yingkou

Border industrial zone – near the Korean Peninsula:

Ø       Dandong


Shenyang 瀋陽:


1999 data:



Industrial Output

Retail Sales


(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

6,771 (+0.3%)

101.3 (+10.3%)

58.3 (+11.9%)

51.6 (+8.9%)

Shenyang is about 175 kilometres from the coast (Bohai Sea).  It was a major trading centre in the 11th century and became the cultural centre for the Manchus.  The city was occupied by the Russians at the end of the 19th century, after which the region was dominated by warlords and by the Japanese in 1931.

Heavy industries dominate employment in the city, although service industries are beginning to expand.


Dalian 大連:

1999 data:



Industrial Output

Retail Sales


(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

5,453 (+0.4%)

100.3 (+8.3%)

84.3 (+10.9%)

44.8 (+9.0%)

Dalian occupies an extension of the Liaodong Peninsula, which, with the smaller port city Lüshun, is sometimes referred to as Lüda.  The entire peninsula was acquired by Japan near the end of the 19th century, but the Russians, French and Germans forced the Japanese to withdraw, only to see the Japanese regain it in 1905.

In the period after 1949, Dalian gained status as a major port serving the already industrialised northeast.  It gradually gained prominence in light manufacturing, as well as shipbuilding and chemicals.  The city is noted for being remarkably clean and orderly.


Anshan 鞍山:

1999 data:



Industrial Output

Retail Sales


(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

3,403 (+0.3%)

52.5 (+8.7%)

42.2 (+5.0%)

11.4 (+7.5%)

Anshan is approximately mid-way between Shenyang and the Bohai Sea.  The mountains to the east have iron ore deposits and this contributed to the city’s well-developed iron and steel complex.  Other industries include chemicals and machinery. 

The city was reconstructed shortly after 1949, thus giving it more modern industrial facilities than other portions of the northeast.


Fushun 撫順:

1999 data:



Industrial Output

Retail Sales


(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

2,269 (-0.1%)

20.6 (+6.2%)

27.6 (-0.4%)

10.4 (+5.1%)

Fushun’s industrial output is facilitated by abundant coal supplies, and some oil-shale deposits in the nearby Hinggan Mountains.  It is about 30 kilometres east of Shanyang.

Industries in the municipality include aluminium, iron and steel, petroleum refining, machinery, cement, rubber and fertilizer.


Jinzhou 錦州:

1999 data:



Industrial Output

Retail Sales


(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

3,054 (+0.4%)

18.7 (+0%)

13.6 (+5.4%)

8.6 (+3.6%)

Jinzhou is about 25 kilometres from the Bohai Sea and is beginning to benefit from the spread of industrial enterprises along the coast from Dalian to Tangshan.


Dandong 丹東:

1999 data:



Industrial Output

Retail Sales


(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

2,405 (+0.1%)

16.6 (+5.1%)

9.4 (+8.4%)

6.6 (+6.5%)

Dandong lies along the Yalu River at the point at which the river forms an estuary with the Yellow Sea.  It is also along the rail line that connects Shenyang with Pyongyang in North Korea.  Local industries include watch making, knitting, printing and food processing.


Yingkou 營口:

1999 data:



Industrial Output

Retail Sales


(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

2,243 (+0.6%)

15.5 (+9.2%)

13.7 (+7.0%)

5.2 (+6.1%)

Yingkou is on the flat, marshy portion of the province where the Liao River divides into numerous waterways before joining the Bohai Sea.  It has recently become a major trading and communications center for the province, as well as for the northeastern region.


Information Sources:


Information contained in this page was obtained from:

Hong Kong Trade Development Council (

China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, Liaoning Sub-Council (

Liaoning Provincial Foreign Affairs Office (


Additional Information:


We are in the process of maintaining regular contact with organisations in the cities listed.  Please contact us if you require additional information about Liaoning Province or any of the cities listed.



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