The Australia-China Chamber of Commerce and Industry
of New South Wales






Heilongjiang is shown in black.

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General Profile:

Population: 36,900,000

Regional Capital: Harbin

Average temperatures: -23 deg C to -17 deg C in January; 16 deg C to 23 deg C in July.

Physical features: Heilongjiang Province has mountains in the north and south, with plains in the east and west. Intermittent volcanic eruptions occur in some sections.  As a far north province, Heilongjiang is the coldest in the northwest.  The area of the province is 454,000 square kilometres.

Rivers: The Heilong River flows along the northern border. The Nenjiang and Songhua River are in the middle and the Wusuli River is along the eastern border.

Administrative divisions: 19 cities, 59 counties and 1 autonomous county.

Historical significance: The Han Chinese did not settle in the province until the mid-19th century.  Prior to that, Russians exerted considerable influence over the region and the early influence is still felt. Some parts of the province retain Russian characteristics, particularly in architectural style.

Natural Resources:

Approximately 50 per cent of the land area is mountainous, including the heavily forested Da Xing-an and Xiao Xing-an Mountains(大、小興安嶺).  Timber resources are therefore abundant and account for about one-third of the nation’s total.

The province's deposits of gold and graphite are among the largest in China.  Other significant mineral and metal deposits include silver, copper, lead, aluminium, tungsten, zinc, molybdenum, crude oil, coal, wood, soda, quartz, marble and mica.  The province also ranks first in production of petroleum, which is mainly found in Daqing Oilfield(大慶油田).  Output of crude oil reached 54.5 million tons in 1999, ranking the first in China and accounting for one-third of the country's total. 

Economic Profile:




Economic Indicators





(% p.a.)

(% p.a.)

Gross domestic product (RMB bn)


2.4 *


8.1 *

Per capita GDP (RMB)





Disposable income per capita

  - urban (RMB) 





  - rural (RMB)





Fixed asset investment (RMB bn)





Value added by sector

  - primary (RMB bn)





  - secondary (RMB bn)





  - tertiary (RMB bn)





Retail sales (RMB bn)





Inflation (CPI, %)



Exports (US$ bn)





  - by FIEs (US$ bn)





Imports (US$ bn)





  - by FIEs (US$ bn)





Foreign direct investment

  - number of projects





  - contracted amount (US$ bn)





  - utilised amount (US$ bn)





Notes: *Estimated
China Statistical Abstract.



Water Transport -- The port of Harbin is the province's largest inland transport centre on the Songhua River.  The province has 22 state-level ports, the second largest number in China (after Guangdong).

RailwaysRail is an important means of transport in this relatively large and isolated province.  There are frequent train services to the ports of Dalian in Liaoning Province and Vladivostok in Russia.  Electrification of HaDa Railway(哈大鐵路: Harbin-Dalian 哈爾濱-大連)was completed recently. 

A new railway network from Harbin to Changxing(長興)in Zhejiang is being planned.  This will link with the HaDa railway and a 170-kilometre-long ferry passage from Dalian to Yantai in Shandong.  It will further extend from Shandong to Zhejiang and connect with Shanghai and Jiangsu Province.

Another major provincial railway, the Suidong line (阳-宁), which will link the eastern part of the province with Russian Far Eastern ports, is under construction.

Roadways -- The province has a well-developed transportation network centred on Harbin.  The Shenha Expressway(瀋哈高速公路)from Shenyang to Harbin, one of the longest four-lane highway in China, is now under construction.

Air Transport -- Harbin Airport provides regular flight services to places like Hong Kong and Russia.  Other major airports are located at Jiamusi, Mudanjiang, Heihe, and Qiqihar.

Recently, the longest domestic air route in China has been opened which stretches from Jiamusi City(佳木斯)in Heilongjiang to Sanya City in Hainan. 

TelecommunicationsCommunications are well-developed in Heilongjiang. There are 3.47 million mobile phone users and 200,000 internet users in Heilongjiang, as at the end of 2000. 

Erisson recently set up a new joint venture with the Heilongjiang Mobile Telecom Company.  The new company, Heilongjiang Erisson Technology Co. Ltd. is the ninth joint venture of Erisson in China and will mainly engage in R&D and technological services in both domestic and international market. 

Electricity -- There are 1,700 rivers providing ample resources for hydroelectric power generation in the province.  At present, the total capacity of hydroelectric power is over 6 million kWh, while the capacity of thermal power plant is around 3.6 million kWh.


Heilongjiang is one of the largest producers of soya beans, maize and beetroot in China.  Other products include, sorghum, millet, wheat, rice, potatoes, soybeans, sugar beet, sesame, sunflower seeds, flax, tussah, timber, fur animals including squirrel, alpine weasel, sable and otter, as well as Siberian ginsing, antlers, tiger bone, musk and other medicinal materials, edible fungus, mushrooms, pine nuts, chum salmon, sturgeon and huso sturgeon.


In 2000, Heilongjiang's industrial output rose by 13.9 per cent to RMB 245.9 billion.  Industries are mainly located at Daqing, Harbin and Qiqihar.

Electronics, automotives and animal feed industries, all of which depend on imported capital and advanced technology, have become the province's pillar industries.  The province's heavy industries such as the mining industries contribute a large percentage to the province's economy.

Future development will be focused on five industries: petrochemical, automobiles and spare parts, electronics, foodstuff and pharmaceuticals.

In 2000, exports increased by 60 per cent to US$2.4 billion.  Major export items included textiles, garment, electronic parts, soybeans and footwear.

Imports amounted to US$1.6 billion, an increase of 6.7 per cent over 1999.  Major import goods were machinery, petrochemicals, light industrial and textile products.

Science and Technology:

There are 5 state-level development zones and 23 provincial-level economic development zones, foreign investment zones and border economic co-operation zones in Heilongjiang.  The five state-level development zones are:

Harbin Economic and Technological Development Zone(哈爾濱經濟技術開發區)
This was approved by the State Council in April 1993to develop manufacturing, and scientific and technological development projects including textiles, electronics, automobile, machinery processing, office equipment, building materials, foodstuff and medicine. 

Harbin High and New Technological Development Zone(哈爾濱高新技術開發區)
Approved by the State Council in March 1991.  The zone consists of Nangang, Xuefu and Pingfang Development Zones where groups of high and new technical enterprise were established.  Currently, there were 152 foreign-invested enterprises from 18 countries in the zone.

Daqing Hi- and New- Technological Development Zone(大慶高新技術開發區)
Approved by the State Council in April 1992, the zone is now ready to receive foreign investment, particularly in the sectors of petrochemical and electronics.

Heihe Border Economic and Technological Co-operation Zone 黑河邊境經濟合作區)
Approved by the State Council in March 1992, the zone took the geographical advantage of bordering on Russia.  It sets up an external-oriented processing district to promote border trade. The zone focused on the development of tourism, new and hi-tech industries and tertiary industries. Major trading partners were Russia, Japan and Republic of Korea. 

Suifenhe Border Economic and Technological Co-operation Zone (綏芬河邊境經濟合作區)
Approved by the State Council in March 1992, the zone was divided into China-Russian border transnational economic co-operation quarter, trade centre quarter, technical and industrial quarter, highway bonded and storage in storehouse quarter, railway bonded and storage in storehouse centre and tourism development quarter. 

The main development is border trade and economic and technology co-operation with Russian, export process, warehousing and transportation, real estate and tourism.  In the first quarter of 2000, Suifenhe City's total trade reached US$184 million, up 52.4 per cent over the same period of 1999. 

Consumers’ Market:

In 2000, retail sales of consumer goods increased by 7.7 per cent to RMB 109.4 billion.  Major consumer markets are located in Harbin and Qiqihar.  Major retail enterprises in Heilongjiang include Heilongjiang Daqing Department Store(黑龍江大慶百貨大樓), Harbin Qiulin Co. Ltd.(哈爾濱秋林股份有限公司), Harbin Central Commercial City(哈爾濱中央商城)and Harbin Department Store(哈爾濱百貨大樓).

Key Cities in Heilongjiang:

Southern industrial zone lies south of the Higgan Mountains and forms an irregular circle with Harbin to the south, Qiqihar to the west and Suihua to the northeast:

Ř  Harbin

Ř  Daqing

Ř  Qiqihar

Ř  Suihua

Eastern industrial region depends heavily on the growing trade with Russia:

Ř  Mudanjiang

The cities are listed below according to their ranking by industrial output.

Harbin 哈爾濱:

1999 data:



Industrial Output

Retail Sales


(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

9,271 (+0.6%)

88.3 (+8.2%)

41.8 (+10%)

41.2 (+9.0%)

Harbin lies in the southern plains and is about 60 kilometres from the Jilin border.  It is a large machinery and tool manufacturing centre, as well as a producer of electrical and construction equipment.

Daqing 大慶:

1999 data:



Industrial Output

Retail Sales


(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

2,458 (+0.3%)

71.3 (+16.5%)

83.6 (19.1%)

7.5 (+7.1%)

Daqing is approximately midway between Harbin and Qiqihar.  Its oil field is the largest in China.  The city is spread over a relatively large area, with small communities built around the 8,000 or so oil wells that are contained within the municipality.

Suihua 綏化:

1999 data:



Industrial Output

Retail Sales


(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

5,368 (+0.3%)

31.0 (+0.0%)

6.6 (-1.4%)

9.0 (+7.1%)

Suihua is at the northern tip of the southern plains region and is about 110 kilometres directly north of Harbin.

Qiqihar 齊齊哈爾:

1999 data:



Industrial Output

Retail Sales


(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

5,537 (+0.6%)

26.8 (+1.9%)

12.7 (+14.4%)

11.5 (+5.5%)

Qiqihar is about 250 kilometres northeast of Harbin.  Its main industrial output consists of locomotives, mining equipment, machine tools and motor vehicles.  It is considered to be the gateway to the Zalong Nature Reserve.

Mudanjiang 牡丹江:

1999 data:



Industrial Output

Retail Sales


(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

(RMB bn)

2,675 (+0.7%)

19.1 (+2.7%)

11.4 (+4.6%)

7.9 (+6.8%)

Mudanjiang lies nearly 300 kilometres east of Harbin and is one of China's major border trade centres, accounting for nearly 70 per cent of the province's total border trade.  In 1999, this trade reached US$1 billion.  Its major export goods included light industrial products, textiles, food, electronic equipment, vegetables, agricultural by-products and ornaments. 

Information Sources:

Information contained in this page was obtained from:

Hong Kong Trade Development Council http://www.hktdc.com).

Additional Information:

We are in the process of maintaining regular contact with organisations in the cities listed.  Please contact us if you require additional information about Heilongjiang Province or any of the cities listed.

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